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Figure S1. An illustration of the fecundity costs of APE compared with sexual reproduction in vertebrates and in invertebrates with neopanoistic ovaries or with panoistic ovaries in which there is more than one mitosis. The figure depicts a diploid (2n) germ line stem cell (GSC) dividing mitotically to form a daughter GSC and a non-daughter cell. The daughter GSC continues this process (indicated by dotted arrows). The non-daughter cell initiates a series of m mitotic divisions to produce a cyst (cluster) of cells. m = 3 generations of mitosis are illustrated. The mitoses are normal in the sexual pathway and result in a cyst of 2m = 8 diploid cells that enter meiosis to produce eight haploid eggs that are fertilized to produce eight offspring. The first two mitoses in the asexual APE pathway are also normal but the third is an endomitosis, resulting in a cyst of 2m – 1 = 4 tetraploid cells that enter meiosis to produce four diploid eggs that divide parthenogenetically to produce four offspring.

Figure S2. An illustration of the fecundity implications of APE compared with sexual reproduction in animals with meroistic ovaries. The figure depicts a diploid (2n) germ line stem cell (GSC) dividing mitotically to form a daughter GSC and a non-daughter cell. The daughter GSC continues this process (indicted by dotted arrows). The non-daughter cell initiates a series of m mitotic divisions to produce a cyst (cluster) of cells. m = 3 generations of mitosis are illustrated. All mitoses are normal in the sexual pathway and result in a cyst of 2m = 8 diploid cells. One of these becomes an oocyte and enters meiosis to produce a haploid egg that is fertilized. The remaining cyst cells become nurse cells. In the asexual pathway one of the mitoses in the third mitotic generation is an endomitosis; the others are normal mitoses. Hence the cyst in the asexual comprises six diploid nurse cells and one tetraploid oocyte that enters meiosis to produce a diploid egg that develops parthenogenetically.

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