Evolution of karyotype, sex chromosomes, and meiosis in mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Mygalomorphae)
Article first published online: 8 APR 2013
© 2013 The Linnean Society of London
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
Volume 109, Issue 2, pages 377–408, June 2013
How to Cite
Král, J., Kořínková, T., Krkavcová, L., Musilová, J., Forman, M., Herrera, I. M. Á., Haddad, C. R., Vítková, M., Henriques, S., Vargas, J. G. P. and Hedin, M. (2013), Evolution of karyotype, sex chromosomes, and meiosis in mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Mygalomorphae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109: 377–408. doi: 10.1111/bij.12056
- Issue published online: 13 MAY 2013
- Article first published online: 8 APR 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 2 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 2 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 19 AUG 2012
- Czech Science Foundation. Grant Number: 206/08/0813
- Charles University. Grant Number: SVV-2012–265202
- Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Grant Numbers: SVV-2013-267205, IAA601110808
- National Research Foundation of South Africa. Grant Number: Thuthuka TTK2008050500003
Figure S1. Male sets of diplurids (A) and paratropidids (B). A, Ischnothele caudata, karyotype, silver staining (mitotic metaphase). Three pairs (nos 1, 2, and XY) contain a subterminal NOR. B, Paratropis sp. (Mexico), haploid set without X chromosomes (metaphase II). Note monoarmed chromosomes (nos 17, 19, 24–30, 32, 33, 35, 37–40, 42–46, and 48–53). Two chromosomes are submetacentric/subtelocentric (nos 41 and 47). Scale bars: 10 μm.
Figure S2. Linothele megatheloides (Dipluridae): prophase I of male; arrow, X chromosome(s); open arrow, SCP. A, transition to diplotene. Note a SCB composed by X chromosomes on the nuclear periphery and a positively heteropycnotic SCB formed by SCP; B, diakinesis. The central part of the plate contains X chromosomes and SCP, which is the largest bivalent of the set. Scale bars: 10 μm.
Figure S3. Male set of Ischnocolus jickelii (Theraphosidae, Ischnocolinae): metaphase II. Karyotype consists of metacentrics, except for six submetacentric pairs (nos 11, 20, 24, 32, 33, and 38). The sex chromosomes show a slightly delayed condensation and chromatid separation. Scale bar: 10 μm.
Figure S4. Male karyotypes of the theraphosid subfamily Theraphosinae, based on metaphases II. A, Holothele cf. longipes, chromosomes are biarmed, except for two monoarmed pairs (nos 2 and 35). B, Grammostola rosea, chromosomes are metacentric, except for two submetacentric (nos 12 and 19) and one subtelocentric (no. 32) pairs as well as submetacentric X2 chromosome Scale bars: 10 μm.
Figure S5. Male karyotype of Iberesia machadoi (Nemesiidae): mitotic metaphase. Scale bar: 10 μm.
Figure S6. Male sets of ctenizids (A) and idiopids (B), based on mitotic metaphases. A, Ummidia sp. (monoarmed pairs: nos 16 and 19). B, Idiops syriacus (submetacentric/subtelocentric pairs: nos 23–25). Chromosomes are arranged into pairs tentatively because the sex chromosome system is unknown. The odd element is the putative X chromosome. Open arrowheads – large terminal secondary constrictions. Scale bars: 10 μm.
Figure S7. Male of Cyrtocarenum cunicularium: late spermatogonial metaphase. Note association of SCP chromosomes (open arrows). Scale bar: 10 μm.
Table S1. Basic data concerning collection (localities, sex, and instar of specimens used) and evaluation (*families studied for the first time, 1relative chromosome lengths were not determined, 2relative lengths of X chromosomes were not determined). aCA, California; Co., county; MX, Mexico; NR, nature reserve; RSA, Republic of South Africa. Unless otherwise indicated, deposited in collection of J. Král (BD, B. Drolshagen; NMP, National Museum, Prague; RJR, R.J. Raven). bf, female; fn, female nymph; m, male; mn, male nymph; sf, subadult female; sm, subadult male.
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