Figure S1. Population fluctuations estimated with the extended Bayesian skyline plot method. (a) CA, (b) GR, (c) FA, (d) HE, (e) HR, (f) O, (g) HF (c to g are from Iceland), (h) F, (i) BR. A solid line represents the median and dotted lines the 95% highest posterior density interval. The x-axis denotes the time in million years and the y-axis denotes the effective population size per generation (in millions) (generation length is approximately 10 years).

Table S1. Frequency of the haplotypes of COI and 16S rRNA, mitochondrial DNA gene fragments, at different localities with GenBank accession numbers.

Table S2. Frequency of the alleles obtained at five microsatellite loci (a) bu67, (b) bu119, (c) bu122, (d) bu145, and (e) bu151 at different localities.

Table S3. Deviation from Hardy–Weinberg for each locus summarized with the inbreeding coefficient FIS. The significance of the FIS values were tested with 1000 permutations, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. P > 0.001 was not significant after Bonferroni adjustment.

Table S4. Results from the SAMOVA analyses on mitochondrial DNA variation in Europe and only within Iceland. K, number of clusters. Brackets around sample names refer to clustering obtained. Values in the three columns represent the proportion out of total variation found at the different levels. ns, nonsignificant *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.

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