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The University of British Columbia


  • Michael C. Klein MD, CCFP, FAAP (Neonatal/Perinatal), FCPS, ABFP

    Professor,Director,Senior Scientist Emeritus
    1. Emeritus in the Departments of Family Practice and Pediatrics, Clinical Scholars Program, Department of Family Practice University of British Columbia, BC Child and Family Research Institute, Centre Developmental Neurosciences & Child Health, Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Erratum Volume 40, Issue 3, 214, Article first published online: 6 August 2013

  • Commentary on: Karlström A, Lindgren H, Hildingsson I. Maternal and infant outcome after caesarean section without recorded medical indication: findings from a Swedish case–control study. BJOG 2013;120(4):479486.

Address correspondence to Michael C. Klein, Clinical Services Building Room V3-3, 948 West 28th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6H 3N1.


This study is one of a series of recent publications that attempt to sort out the impact of mode of birth on maternal and newborn outcome. The focus on elective cesarean section compared to planned vaginal birth beginning in spontaneous labor is an improved methodology over the earlier comparisons that failed to be able to separate planned from unplanned cesarean section or vaginal birth. The retrospective case control methodology based on birth record data that is employed in this research is similar to others, though with more respectable numbers. Most suffer from the problem of ascertainment difficulties, failure to stratify by parity, and of course, the unavailability of randomization, which some consider the ideal methodology. (BIRTH 40:2 June 2013)