Background Skin ageing is influenced by environmental factors such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The effects of UV radiation on skin functions should be investigated using human in vitro models to understand the mechanisms of skin ageing. Additionally, marine algae provide a valuable source for identifying and extracting biologically active substances.
Objectives In this study, sargachromanol E was isolated from a marine brown alga, Sargassum horneri, and its inhibitory effect on skin ageing was investigated using UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.
Methods Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation induced by UVA irradiation were investigated in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. The levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis.
Results Sargachromanol E did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity or phototoxicity in UVA-exposed dermal fibroblasts. Additionally, sargachromanol E suppressed intracellular formation of ROS, membrane protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and expression of collagenases such as MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9, all of which are caused by UVA exposure. It was further found that these inhibitions were related to an increase in the expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) genes, TIMP1 and TIMP2. Moreover, we have shown that the transcriptional activation of activator protein 1 (AP-1) signalling caused by UVA irradiation was inhibited by treatment with sargachromanol E.
Conclusions This study suggests that UVA irradiation modulates MMP expression via the transcriptional activation of AP-1 signalling, whereas treatment with sargachromanol E protected cell damage caused by UVA irradiation.