Xanthoma disseminatum (XD) is a rare benign histiocytic disorder with extensive mucocutaneous xanthomas that often involves other sites such as the central nervous system (CNS), respiratory tract and abdominal organs. Evaluation of the extent of disease is important because lesions in critical locations may increase morbidity and mortality. However, there are no well-established tools for the evaluation and monitoring of XD. Here, we report a case of XD in a 21-year-old male patient showing skin, mucous membrane, CNS and internal organ involvement. In this case, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography was useful in detecting the extent of the disease and in estimating the therapeutic response.