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Figure S1. Means and standard errors for the main effects of expectation and stress on (a) sensitivity, (b) response bias, and (c) false positive rate.

Figure S2. Example of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The thick line represents the ROC curve, the small-dashed line represents the major diagonal and the large-dashed line intersects the midpoint criterion (e.g., it distinguishes ‘yes’ from ‘no’ responses). Sensitivity can be defined as the area under the ROC curve (a + b + c + d) while response bias can be obtained by calculating the proportion of area between the major diagonal and the ROC curve that is above and below the midpoint criterion (a/b).

Figure S3. Receiver operating characteristic curves for the high constraint (red) and low constraint (blue) trials for every participant.

Figure S4. Correlations between psychometric measures used in the study. As the majority of psychometric measures were found to be non-normal using the Shapiro–Wilk test, Spearman's rho correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationships between them (sample size = 70). State & trait anxiety relate to the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. SPQ = Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire; LSHS = Launay-Slade Hallucination Proneness; PBS = Paranormal Belief Scale (‘new age philosophy’ and ‘traditional paranormal belief’ subscale scores shown).

Figure S5. Descriptive statistics for the psychometric measures used in the study. State & trait anxiety relate to the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. SPQ = Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire; LSHS = Launay-Slade Hallucination Proneness; PBS = Paranormal Belief Scale (‘new age philosophy’ and ‘traditional paranormal belief’ subscale scores shown).

Table S1. High and low constraint frames used during the experiment. Note that ‘CP’ relates to the cloze probability of the most frequent answer (i.e., the percentage of participants who responded with the most frequently used answer from the pilot study). Duration relates to the length in ms of the audio file created for the frame. The most frequent answers identified for the high constraint frames were used as target nouns during signal trials.

Table S2. International affective picture system images used during the experiment and associated mean valence and arousal ratings (Lang et al., 2008). The mean values reflect ratings given to the image on a 9-point scale. Higher valence scores reflect the image being rated as more pleasant. Higher arousal scores reflect the image being rated as more arousing (see Lang et al., 2008, for more details).

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