• remote ischaemic preconditioning;
  • laparoscopic partial nephrectomy;
  • warm ischaemia;
  • urinary retinol-binding protein;
  • radionuclide imaging


  • To evaluate whether remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) reduces renal injury in patients undergoing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN).

Patients and methods

  • In all, 82 patients undergoing LPN were randomly assigned to either the RIPC or control group, with 40 and 38 patients, respectively completing 6-months follow-up.
  • RIPC was conducted after induction of anaesthesia, which consisted of three 5-min cycles of right lower limb ischaemia and 5 min of reperfusion during each cycle.
  • The primary outcome was the absolute change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the affected kidney by renal scintigraphy from baseline to 6 months.
  • The secondary outcomes included urinary retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels measured at 24 and 48 h, serum creatinine, and estimated GFR (eGFR) at 1 and 6 months, and changes in GFR by renal scintigraphy.


  • There were no differences in the change of GFR of the affected kidney at 6 months, while it was significantly decreased by 15.0% in the control group vs 8.8% in the RIPC group at 1 month (P = 0.034).
  • The urinary RBP levels increased 8.4-fold at 24 h in the control group compared with a lower increase of 3.9-fold in the RIPC group (P < 0.001).
  • There were no differences in the serum creatinine level or eGFR at 1 and 6 months between the two groups.


  • In patients undergoing LPN, RIPC using transient lower limb ischaemia may reduce renal impairment in the short term, but failed in the longer term despite a non-significant trend in favour of RIPC.
  • These novel data support the need for a larger study of RIPC during LPN surgery.