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Keywords:

  • bladder cancer;
  • transitional cell carcinoma;
  • wireless capsule endoscopy

Objective

  • To develop and test the safety and feasibility of a novel anti-biofilm mechanism configured for wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in a sheep bladder model.

Materials and Methods

  • A WCE mechanism, designed for long-term bladder monitoring, was developed and introduced into a sheep bladder for 5 months.
  • The transparency of the surface was assessed by evaluating a resolution target placed inside the capsule at serial intervals using cystoscopy under general anaesthesia.
  • Animal behaviour, voiding patterns and urine cultures were monitored throughout the study.
  • At study termination, the capsule was extracted and assessed using scanning electron microscopy.

Results

  • The resolution target was visualized clearly at all investigation points.
  • No notable adverse effects were noted during the entire follow-up period and no urinary tract infection occurred.
  • Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the efficacy of the technology to prevent biofilm formation and surface encrustation.

Conclusions

  • We report a novel technology that effectively prevents biofilm formation on the outer surface of foreign objects in the urinary tract.
  • Further studies are under way to test the applicability of this technology in bladder WCE to enable high-quality wireless image transmission.