Validation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival in patients with localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC)
Article first published online: 15 MAR 2013
© 2013 BJU International
Volume 111, Issue 8, pages E348–E353, June 2013
How to Cite
de Martino, M., Klatte, T., Seemann, C., Waldert, M., Haitel, A., Schatzl, G., Remzi, M. and Weibl, P. (2013), Validation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival in patients with localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC). BJU International, 111: E348–E353. doi: 10.1111/bju.12067
- Issue published online: 28 MAY 2013
- Article first published online: 15 MAR 2013
- kidney cancer
- To validate high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) serum levels as an independent marker for disease-free survival (DFS) in clinically localised clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).
Patients and Methods
- In all, 403 consecutive patients with clinically localised (T1–3N0M0) ccRCC treated by radical or partial nephrectomy were enrolled.
- Preoperative serum levels of hs-CRP were evaluated as both a continuous and categorical variables.
- Associations with clinical (age, gender) and pathological variables (T classification, grade, tumour necrosis) were assessed with the chi-square and Kruskal–Wallis tests.
- Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted. The prognostic accuracy (PA) was assessed with Harrell's C-index.
- The mean hs-CRP level was 1.32 mg/dL. The hs-CRP levels were associated with T classification (P = 0.05), high-grade disease (P < 0.001) and tumour necrosis (P = 0.003).
- After a median follow-up of 43 months, 41 patients (10.1%) had developed disease recurrence. With each unit increase in hs-CRP levels, the risk of recurrence increased by 10% (hazard ratio 1.10, P = 0.015).
- The thresholds of 0.5 and 0.75 mg/dL showed the best discrimination for stratification of patients according to the probability of recurrence.
- These categorically coded hs-CRP levels were identified as independent prognostic factors in multivariable analyses (P < 0.001) and led to a significant increase in the PA of a multivariable base model containing the variables of the ‘Stage, Size, Grade and Necrosis’ (SSIGN) score.
- This study validates preoperative serum hs-CRP levels as independent prognostic factor after surgery for localised ccRCC.
- Hs-CRP may be included in standard prognostic modelling after surgery and may guide surveillance and inclusion in adjuvant clinical trials.