Role of Immunotherapy in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC)
Article first published online: 12 APR 2013
© 2013 BJU International
Volume 113, Issue 3, pages 367–375, March 2014
How to Cite
Suárez, C., Morales-Barrera, R., Ramos, V., Núñez, I., Valverde, C., Planas, J., Morote, J., Maldonado, X. and Carles, J. (2014), Role of Immunotherapy in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC). BJU International, 113: 367–375. doi: 10.1111/bju.12110
- Issue published online: 14 FEB 2014
- Article first published online: 12 APR 2013
- metastatic prostate cancer;
- Initial therapy for metastatic prostate cancer consists of androgenic suppression. However, this is only a palliative treatment with an effective duration that usually lasts 12–24 months. Historically, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) had been considered a chemoresistant tumour.
- In 2004, docetaxel received USA Food and Drug Administration approval as a first-line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer, after two independent phase III trials showed an increased survival benefit. Recently, five new drugs have shown increased survival in CRPC: sipuleucel-T (assymptomatic or minimally symptomatic), abiraterone acetate (before and after docetaxel), cabazitaxel (after docetaxel), MDV3100 (after docetaxel) and radium-223 (not suitable for docetaxel or after docetaxel).
- The identification of antigens in normal prostate tissue or prostate cancer that are recognised by immune effectors cells has resulted in several new studies based on immunotherapy.
- Prostate cancer disease provides a test system to determine the efficacy of vaccines for different reasons. This cancer is a tumour that grows relatively slowly. Recurrence is often diagnosed early (with many patients presenting only with biochemical progression), there is a biological marker that can predict prognosis and outcome (PSA doubling time), various specific antigens have been identified and characterised, and vaccines can be used with a good safety profile combined with anti-androgen therapy, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy.
- Here we provide a review of the main important immune treatments in CRPC.