• 1
    Ito Y, Kikuchi E, Tanaka N et al. Pre-operative hydronephrosis grade independently predicts worse pathological outcomes in patients undergoing nephro-ureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. J Urol 2011; 185: 16211626
  • 2
    Li CC, Chang TH, Wu WJ et al. Significant predictive factors for prognosis of primary upper urinary tract cancer after radical nephro-ureterectomy in Taiwanese patients. Eur Urol 2008; 54: 11271134
  • 3
    Brien JC, Shariat SF, Herman MP et al. Pre-operative hydronephrosis, ureteroscopic biopsy grade and urinary cytology can improve prediction of advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma. J Urol 2010; 184: 6973
  • 4
    Ng CK, Shariat SF, Lucas SM et al. Does the presence of hydronephrosis on preoperative axial CT imaging predict worse outcomes for patients undergoing nephro-ureterectomy for upper-tract urothelial carcinoma? Urol Oncol 2011; 29: 2732
  • 5
    Rink M, Sjoberg D, Comploj E et al. Risk of cancer-specific mortality following recurrence after radical nephro-ureterectomy. Ann Surg Oncol 2012; 19: 43374344
  • 6
    Jeldres C, Lughezzani G, Sun M et al. Segmental ureterectomy can safely be performed in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter. J Urol 2010; 183: 13241329
  • 7
    Lane BR, Smith AK, Larson BT et al. Chronic kidney disease after nephro-ureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma and implications for the administration of peri-operative chemotherapy. Cancer 2010; 116: 29672973
  • 8
    Kaag MG, O'Malley RL, O'Malley P et al. Changes in renal function following nephro-ureterectomy may affect the use of peri-operative chemotherapy. Eur Urol 2010; 58: 581587
  • 9
    Brown GA, Busby JE, Wood CG et al. Nephro-ureterectomy for treating upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: time to change the treatment paradigm? BJU Int 2006; 98: 11761180
  • 10
    Matin SF, Margulis V, Kamat A et al. Incidence of down-staging and complete remission after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Cancer 2010; 116: 31273134
  • 11
    Stravodimos KG, Koritsiadis G, Lazaris AC et al. Hydronephrosis promotes expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha. Urol Int 2009; 82: 3842
  • 12
    Blancher C, Moore JW, Talks KL et al. Relationship of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha expression to vascular endothelial growth factor induction and hypoxia survival in human breast cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 2000; 60: 71067113
  • 13
    Deniz H, Karakok M, Yagci F et al. Evaluation of relationship between HIF-1alpha immuno-reactivity and stage, grade, angiogenic profile and proliferative index in bladder urothelial carcinomas. Int Urol Nephrol 2010; 42: 103107
  • 14
    Kang CH, Yu TJ, Hsieh HH et al. The development of bladder tumors and contralateral upper urinary tract tumors after primary transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Cancer 2003; 98: 16201626
  • 15
    Hafner C, Knuechel R, Zanardo L et al. Evidence for oligoclonality and tumor spread by intra-luminal seeding in multifocal urothelial carcinomas of the upper and lower urinary tract. Oncogene 2001; 20: 49104915
  • 16
    Lughezzani G, Burger M, Margulis V et al. Prognostic factors in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas: a comprehensive review of the current literature. Eur Urol 2012; 62: 100114
  • 17
    Chung SD, Huang KH, Lai MK et al. CKD as a risk factor for bladder recurrence after nephro-ureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Am J Kidney Dis 2007; 50: 743753
  • 18
    Li WM, Li CC, Ke HL et al. The prognostic predictors of primary ureteral transitional cell carcinoma after radical nephro-ureterectomy. J Urol 2009; 182: 451458
  • 19
    Chiang PH, Luo HL, Chen YT et al. Is hand-assisted retro-peritoneoscopic nephro-ureterectomy better than transurethral bladder cuff incision-assisted nephro-ureterectomy? J Endourol 2012; 25: 13071313