• regionalisation;
  • radical cystectomy;
  • muscle-invasive bladder cancer


  • To quantify in absolute terms the potential benefit of regionalisation of care from low- to high-volume hospitals.

Patients and Methods

  • Patients with a primary diagnosis of bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy (RC) were identified within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a retrospective observational population-based cohort of the USA, between 1998 and 2009.
  • Intraoperative and postoperative complications, blood transfusions, prolonged length of stay, and in-hospital mortality rates represented the outcomes of interest.
  • Potentially avoidable outcomes were calculated by subtracting predicted rates (i.e. estimated outcomes if care was delivered at a high-volume hospital) from observed rates (i.e. actual observed outcomes after care delivered at a low-volume hospital).
  • Multivariable logistic regression models and number needed to treat were generated.


  • Patients treated at high-volume hospitals had lower odds of complications during hospitalisation than those treated in low-volume hospitals.
  • Potentially avoidable intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, blood transfusions, prolonged hospitalisation, and in-hospital mortality rates were 0.6, 7.4, 2.8, 9.4, and 2.0%, respectively.
  • This corresponds to a number needed to redirect from low- to high-volume hospitals in order to avoid one adverse event of 166, 14, 36, 11 and 50, respectively.


  • This is the first report to quantify the potential benefit of regionalisation of RC for muscle-invasive bladder cancer to high-volume hospitals.