• robot-assisted;
  • bladder cancer;
  • nomograms


  • To externally validate currently available bladder cancer nomograms for prediction of all-cause survival (ACS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), other-cause mortality (OCM) and progression-free survival (PFS).

Patients and Methods

  • Retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of 282 patients who underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) at a single institution was performed.
  • The Bladder Cancer Research Consortium (BCRC), International Bladder Cancer Nomogram Consortium (IBCNC) and Lughezzani nomograms were used for external validation, and evaluation for accuracy at predicting oncological outcomes.
  • The 2- and 5-year oncological outcomes were compared, and nomogram performance was evaluated through measurement of the concordance (c-index) between nomogram-derived predicted oncological outcomes and observed oncological outcomes.


  • The median (range) patient age was 70 (36–90) years. At a mean follow-up of 20 months, local or distant disease recurrence developed in 30% of patients. With an overall mortality rate of 33%, 17% died from bladder cancer.
  • The actuarial 2- and 5-year PFS after RARC was 62% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54–68) and 55% (95% CI 46–63), respectively.
  • The actuarial 2- and 5-year ACS was 66% (95% CI 59–72) and 47% (95% CI 37–55), respectively, and the 2- and 5-year CSS was 81% (95% CI 74–86) and 67% (95% CI 57–76), respectively.
  • The PFS c-index for IBCNC was 0.70 at 5 years, and for BCRC was 0.77 at both the 2 and 5 years. The accuracy of ACS and CSS prediction was evaluated using the BCRC and Lughezzani nomograms. Using the BCRC nomogram, c-indices of for 2- and 5-year ACS were each 0.73 and c-indices for 2- and 5-year CSS were 0.70 each. The performance of Lughezzani nomogram for 5-year ACS, cancer-specific mortality and OCM were 0.73, 0.72 and 0.40, respectively.
  • The BCRC nomogram prediction of advanced pathological stage and lymph node metastasis was modest, with c-indices of 0.66 and 0.61, respectively.


  • Bladder cancer nomograms available from the current open RC literature adequately predict ACS, CSS and PFS after RARC.
  • However, prediction of advanced tumour stage and lymph node metastasis was modest and the Lughezzani nomogram failed to predict OCM.