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Multivariate analysis of morphological and anatomical characters of Calophyllum (Calophyllaceae) in South America


  • Dilys M. Vela Díaz

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Science and Conservation, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO, USA
    • Department of Biology, University of Missouri – St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA
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Calophyllum (Calophyllaceae), previously placed in Clusiaceae, is easily recognizable by its opposite entire leaves with close parallel venation alternating with resin canals. However, distinction between species has been difficult, because of infraspecific variation in tepal and stamen number and resemblance among species that share similar habitats. Here, I report the results of multivariate analyses of morphological and anatomical characters for Calophyllum in South America, and provide a taxonomic treatment for the genus in South America, the first since that of Vesque in 1893. Thirteen preliminary morphogroups were identified. Thirty-two morphological characters of the leaf, flower and fruit from 401 specimens, and 17 anatomical leaf characters from 45 specimens were measured and analysed using principal component analyses (PCAs) and discriminant analyses (DAs). PCAs were used to find groups and DAs were used to validate those PCAs that were potential groups. Two main subgroups were identified in the general analysis. Subgroup M1 has terete stems and smaller leaves and flowers than subgroup M2, which, instead, has quadrangular stems. Only subgroup M2 showed distinctive clusters in regional and local analyses. Distinctive clusters and morphological and anatomical characters helped us to recognize four species in South America, including a new species, Calophyllum pubescens sp. nov.. In addition, a new species, Calophyllum mesoamericanum sp. nov., is described from Central America. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London,

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