Generalized food deception: colour signals and efficient pollen transfer in bee-pollinated species of Eulophia (Orchidaceae)
Article first published online: 19 MAR 2013
© 2013 The Linnean Society of London
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society
Volume 171, Issue 4, pages 713–729, April 2013
How to Cite
Peter, C. I. and Johnson, S. D. (2013), Generalized food deception: colour signals and efficient pollen transfer in bee-pollinated species of Eulophia (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 171: 713–729. doi: 10.1111/boj.12028
- Issue published online: 19 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 19 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 13 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Received: 21 SEP 2012
Figure S1. (A) Eulophia speciosa produces large showy inflorescences made up of a number of large flowers (B). This species is pollinated by Xylocopa flavorufa (C) with the pollinaria being attached between the antennae of these bees (D).
Figure S2. (A) Eulophia streptopetala produces tall inflorescences with a succession of flowers (B), which have prominent yellow lateral petals and a yellow labellum with maroon side lobes. This species is pollinated by various species of Megachilidae including (C) Megachile cincta, (D) an unidentified Megachile sp. and (E) M. felina.
Figure S3. (A) The inflorescences of Eulophia cucullata are relatively few flowered, the flowers (B) being bright pink with a prominent yellow base to the sac-like spur. This species is pollinated by (C) Xylocopa flavicollis and (D) X. hottentotta, this latter specimen bearing only a viscidium.
Figure S4. (A) Eulophia angolensis produces large showy inflorescences with many open flowers. The flowers are sweetly scented, (B) staining with neutral red indicates that the three lamellae ridges of the labellum are the site of scent production. Eulophia angolensis is pollinated by Xylocopa flavicollis (C), with a scoliid wasp, Campsomesiella calebs (D) also being collected visiting the flowers.
Figure S5. The inflorescences of Eulophia ovalis subsp. ovalis are relatively few flowered, often with less than three open flowers per inflorescence at any one time (A, B). Only one individual of a species of Lasioglossum (Halictidae) has been collected bearing the pollinaria of this subspecies.
Figure S6. A, percentage of herbarium specimens (in PRE and GRA) in flower in each moth of the year for the five study species. B, percentage of bee specimens collected in each month of the year, based on data in Eardley (1983), the collection in the Albany Museum, Grahamstown (AMGS) and the collection of the first author. Numbers in parentheses are sample sizes. Shading of bars for plant species do not correspond with those for pollinators.
Table S1. Study sites and study species. Square brackets are used in this table to distinguish natural populations from garden grown plants.
Table S2. Detailed visitation rates and pollen transfer efficiencies in bee-pollinated species of Eulophia.
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