A species-level taxonomic revision of Atocion and Viscaria, based on a recent phylogenetic study, is presented. Atocion includes six species (A. armeria, A. compactum, A. lerchenfeldianum, A. reuterianum, A. rupestre and A. scythicinum), and Viscaria includes three species (V. alpina, V. asterias and V. vulgaris). The highest species diversity is found on the Balkan Peninsula. Species descriptions based on a study of morphological characters and generated using the Prometheus description model are provided and are also available in the Sileneae online database. Complete synonymy, notes on the ecology and geographical distribution of the taxa and an identification key are provided. Lectotypes for nine names (Lychnis helvetica, L. suecica, Silene armeria var. angustifolia, S. berdaui, S. lituanica, S. compacta, S. orientalis, S. reuteriana and Viscaria media) and a neotype for one name (S. lerchenfeldiana) are assigned. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, 173, 194–210.