Dopamine receptors – IUPHAR Review 13

Authors

  • Jean-Martin Beaulieu,

    1. Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval – IUSMQ, Québec, Québec, Canada
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  • Stefano Espinoza,

    1. Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy
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  • Raul R Gainetdinov

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy
    2. Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technologies, Skolkovo, Moscow Region, Russia
    3. Faculty of Biology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
    • Correspondence

      Raul R Gainetdinov, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, Genova, 16163, Italy. E-mail: raul.gainetdinov@iit.it

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Abstract

The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors.

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