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Brain and Behavior

Cover image for Vol. 1 Issue 2

November 2011

Volume 1, Issue 2

Pages i–i, 63–152

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.43

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Pilot data on telmisartan short-term effects on glucose metabolism in the olfactory tract in Alzheimer's disease (pages 63–69)

      Etsuko Imabayashi, Hiroshi Matsuda, Kimiko Yoshimaru, Ichiei Kuji, Akira Seto, Yasumasa Shimano, Kimiteru Ito, Daisuke Kikuta, Tomokazu Shimazu and Nobuo Araki

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.13

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      The possible effect of antihypertensive therapy on Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been studied, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been suggested to exert an effect on cognitive decline. The purpose of this study is to clarify the functional effects of telmisartan, a long-acting ARB, on the AD brain using prospective longitudinal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies.

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      Perfusion 123IMP-SPECT shows reversible abnormalities in GABAB receptor antibody associated encephalitis with normal MRI (pages 70–72)

      Kouichi Ohta, Morinobu Seki, Josep Dalmau and Yukito Shinohara

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.14

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      A new subtype of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against GABAB receptor was recently identified. Although immune-mediated functional abnormalities are suggested for the pathogenesis, functional brain imaging such as perfusion SPECT has not been documented. A 62-year-old woman with anti-GABAB receptor associated encephalitis underwent 123I-IMP SPECT before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

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      The cell adhesion molecule L1 regulates the expression of choline acetyltransferase and the development of septal cholinergic neurons (pages 73–86)

      Xuezhi Cui, Ying-Qi Weng, Isabelle Frappé, Alison Burgess, M. Teresa Girão da Cruz, Melitta Schachner and Isabelle Aubert

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.15

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      Mutations in the L1 gene cause severe brain malformations and mental retardation. We investigated the potential roles of L1 in the regulation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and in the development of septal cholinergic neurons, which are known to project to the hippocampus and play key roles in cognitive functions.

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      Neuroprotective effects of Tacrolimus (FK-506) and Cyclosporin (CsA) in oxidative injury (pages 87–94)

      Seema Yousuf, Fahim Atif, Varun Kesherwani and Sandeep Kumar Agrawal

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.16

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      The detrimental effects of hypoxic damage to central nervous system lead to energy depletion, free radical formation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and increased calcium. We hypothesized that in vitro tacrolimus (FK-506) and cyclosporine A (CsA) could be protective against hypoxic damage in spinal cord. Dorsal columns were isolated from the spinal cord of adult rats and injured by exposure to hypoxic condition for 1 h, and treated with FK-506 (0.1 μM) and CsA (0.1 μM). After injury, reperfusion was carried out for 2 h. Tissues were collected, processed for biochemical assays, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining.

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      White matter maturation of normal human fetal brain. An in vivo diffusion tensor tractography study (pages 95–108)

      Emilie Zanin, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Maxime Guye, Daniele Denis, Patrick J. Cozzone and Nadine Girard

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.17

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      We demonstrate for the first time the ability to determine in vivo and in utero the transitions between the main stages of white matter (WM) maturation in normal human fetuses using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. Biophysical characteristics of water motion are used as an indirect probe to evaluate progression of the tissue matrix organization in cortico-spinal tracts (CSTs), optic radiations (OR), and corpus callosum (CC) in 17 normal human fetuses explored between 23 and 38 weeks of gestation (GW) and selected strictly on minimal motion artifacts.

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      Genetically determined dopamine availability predicts disposition for depression (pages 109–118)

      Andrea Felten, Christian Montag, Sebastian Markett, Nora T. Walter and Martin Reuter

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.20

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      Although prominent personality theories postulate orthogonality between traits of positive emotionality (PEM) and negative emotionality (NEM), empirical evidence often demonstrates the opposite indicating a negative relationship. Therefore, it is not surprising that dopaminergic (DA) gene loci have been related to traits of positive and of NEM. The present genetic association study investigates the influence of two functional DA gene polymorphisms on Sadness as defined by the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) in healthy Caucasians (n= 1041). We observed a significant interaction effect between the 10-repeat (10R) allele of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and the methionine (Met) allele of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism (F(1,1018)= 11.11; P < 0.001).

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      Genetic association of the Phosphoinositide-3 kinase in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and interaction with a BDNF gene polymorphism (pages 119–124)

      Anthony Carrard, Annick Salzmann, Nader Perroud, Jérémie Gafner, Alain Malafosse and Félicien Karege

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.23

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      Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class III (PIK3C3) is a member of the phosphoinosite-3-kinases family, involved in cell signaling, membrane trafficking, and neurodevelopment. Previous studies have indeed shown an association between PIK3C3 gene variants and both bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurodevelopmental factor, which can regulate the PI3K signaling pathway. Associations have been reported between BDNF gene polymorphisms and affective and psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to replicate an association between PIK3C3 and BDNF gene variants in SZ and BD and a putative epistasis between the two genes.

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      Mixed handedness is associated with greater age-related decline in volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala: the PATH through life study (pages 125–134)

      Nicolas Cherbuin, Perminder S. Sachdev and Kaarin J. Anstey

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.24

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      Handedness has been found to be associated with structural and functional cerebral differences. Left handedness and mixed handedness also appear to be associated with an elevated risk of some developmental and immunological disorders that may contribute to pathological processes developing in aging. Inconsistent reports show that left handedness may be more prevalent in early-onset as well as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, but might also be associated with slower decline. Such inconsistencies may be due to handedness being usually modeled as a binary construct while substantial evidence suggests it to be a continuous trait. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain structures known to be implicated in pathological aging and strength and direction of handedness.

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      Polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and EPHX genotypes in patients with cryptogenic polyneuropathy: a case–control study (pages 135–141)

      Jonas Lindh, Peter Söderkvist, Mats Fredrikson, Shahrzad Hosseininia, Martin Tondel, Bodil Persson and Magnus Vrethem

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.26

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      The aim of this study was to analyze whether polymorphisms for the null alleles of Glutathione S-Transferase Mu-1 (GSTM1), Glutathione S-Transferase Theta-1 (GSTT1), and a low-activity genetic variation of epoxide hydrolase exon three (EPHX'3) affect the risk of developing polyneuropathy. The enzymes of these genes are important in the metabolism of toxic compounds. Seventy-nine patients with cryptogenic polyneuropathy (equivalent to chronic idiopathic axonal neuropathy) and 398 controls were tested for the genetic polymorphism. Medical records were reviewed to collect data regarding clinical findings at diagnosis, and exposure data was collected via questionnaires.

  3. Methods

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Methods
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Residual vectors for Alzheimer disease diagnosis and prognostication (pages 142–152)

      David Glenn Clark

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/brb3.19

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      Alzheimer disease (AD) is an increasingly prevalent neurodegenerative condition and a looming socioeconomic threat. A biomarker for the disease could make the process of diagnosis easier and more accurate, and accelerate drug discovery. The current work describes a method for scoring brain images that is inspired by fundamental principles from information retrieval (IR), a branch of computer science that includes the development of Internet search engines. For this research, a dataset of 254 baseline 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans was obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). For a given contrast, a subset of scans (nine of every 10) was used to compute a residual vector that typified the difference, at each voxel, between the two groups being contrasted.

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