SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Adler, P. B., Milchunas, D. G., Lauenroth, W. K., Sala, O. E. & Burke, I. C. (2004). Functional traits of graminoids in semi-arid steppes: a test of grazing histories. Journal of Applied Ecology 41, 653663.
  • Angert, A. L., Huxman, T. E., Chesson, P. & Venable, D. L. (2009). Functional tradeoffs determine species coexistence via the storage effect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, 1164111645.
  • Bakker, E. S. & Olff, H. (2003). The impact of different-sized herbivores on recruitment for subordinate herbs in grasslands. Journal of Vegetation Science 14, 465474.
  • Balvanera, P., Pfisterer, A. B., Buchmann, N., He, J. S., Nakashizuka, T., Raffaelli, D. & Schmid, B. (2006). Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecology Letters 9, 11461156.
  • Bengtsson, J., Angelstam, P., Elmqvist, T., Emanuelsson, U., Folke, C., Ihse, M., Moberg, F. & Nyström, M. (2003). Reserves, resilience, and dynamic landscapes. Ambio 32, 389396.
  • Berkes, F., Colding, J. & Folke, C. (2003). Navigating Social-Ecological Systems. Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Bracken, M. E., Friberg, S. E., Gonzalez-Dorantes, C. A. & Williams, S. L. (2008). Functional consequences of realistic biodiversity changes in a marine ecosystem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 924928.
  • Bracken, M. E. & Low, N. H. (2012). Realistic losses of rare species disproportionately impact higher trophic levels. Ecology Letters 15, 461467.
  • Bullock, J. M., Aronson, J., Newton, A. C., Pywell, R. F. & Rey-Benayas, J. M. (2011). Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 26, 541549.
  • Caceres, C. E. (1997). Temporal variation, dormancy, and coexistence: a field test of the storage effect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94, 91719175.
  • Cadotte, M. W. (2011). The new diversity: management gains through insights into the functional diversity of communities. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 10671069.
  • Cadotte, M. W., Cardinale, B. J. & Oakley, T. H. (2008). Evolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity on plant productivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 1701217017.
  • Cadotte, M. W., Carscadden, K. & Mirotchnick, N. (2011). Beyond species: functional diversity and the maintenance of ecological processes and services. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 10791087.
  • Cardinale, B. J., Duffy, J. E., Gonzalez, A., Hooper, D. U., Perrings, C., Venail, P., Narwani, A., Mace, G. M., Tilman, D., Wardle, D. A., Kinzig, A. P., Daily, G. C., Loreau, M., Grace, J. B., Larigauderie, A., et al. (2012). Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486, 5967.
  • Cardinale, B. J., Matulich, K. L., Hooper, D. U., Byrnes, J. E., Duffy, E., Gamfeldt, L., Balvanera, P., O'Connor, M. I. & Gonzalez, A. (2011). The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems. American Journal of Botany 98, 572592.
  • Cardinale, B. J., Wright, J. P., Cadotte, M. W., Carroll, I. T., Hector, A., Srivastava, D. S., Loreau, M. & Weis, J. J. (2007). Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 1812318128.
  • Carpenter, S. R., Bennett, E. M. & Peterson, G. D. (2006). Scenarios for ecosystem services: an overview. Ecology and Society 11, Article No. 29. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss2/art32
  • Carpenter, S. R. & Gunderson, L. H. (2001). Coping with collapse: ecological and social dynamics in ecosystem management. Bioscience 51, 451457.
  • Chapin, F. S. I., Kofinas, G. P. & Folke, C. (2009). Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship. Resilience-based Natural Resource Management in a Changing World. Springer, New York.
  • Chapin, F. S. I. & Shaver, G. R. (1985). Individualistic growth response of tundra plant species to environmental manipulations in the field. Ecology 66, 564576.
  • Cingolani, A. M., Noy-Meir, I. & Diaz, S. (2005). Grazing effects on rangeland diversity: diversity-intensity and state and transition models. Ecological Applications 15, 757773.
  • Cumming, G. S. & Child, M. F. (2009). Contrasting spatial patterns of taxonomic and functional richness offer insights into potential loss of ecosystem services. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 364, 16831692.
  • Díaz, S. & Cabido, M. (2001). Vive la différence: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem processes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16, 646655.
  • Díaz, S., Fargione, J., Chapin, F. S. & Tilman, D. (2006). Biodiversity loss threatens human well-being. PLoS Biology 4, 13001305.
  • Díaz, S., Lavorel, S., de Bello, F., Quetier, F., Grigulis, K. & Robson, T. M. (2007). Incorporating plant functional diversity effects in ecosystem service assessments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 2068420689.
  • Díaz, S., Quetier, F., Caceres, D. M., Trainor, S. F., Perez-Harguindeguy, N., Bret-Harte, M. S., Finegan, B., Pena-Claros, M. & Poorter, L. (2011). Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature's benefits to society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108, 895902.
  • Duffy, J. E. (2009). Why biodiversity is important to the functioning of real-world ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7, 437444.
  • Duffy, J. E., Richardson, J. P. & France, K. E. (2005). Ecosystem consequences of diversity depend on food chain length in estuarine vegetation. Ecology Letters 8, 301309.
  • Duffy, J. E., Srivastava, D. S., McLaren, J., Sankaran, M., Solan, M., Emmerson, M. & Jones, K. E. (2009). Forecasting decline in ecosystem services under realistic scenarios of extinction. In Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing (eds S. Naeem, D. E. Bunker, A. Hector, M. Loreau and C. Perrings), pp. 6077. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Ellison, A. M., Bank, M. S., Clinton, B. D., Colburn, E. A., Elliott, K., Ford, C. R., Foster, D. R., Kloeppel, B. D., Knoepp, J. D., Lovett, G. M., Mohan, J., Orwig, D. A., Rodenhouse, N. L., Sobczak, W. V., Stinson, K. A., et al. (2005). Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3, 479486.
  • Elmqvist, T., Folke, C., Nystrom, M., Peterson, G., Bengtsson, J., Walker, B. & Norberg, J. (2003). Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1, 488494.
  • van Elsas, J. D., Chiurazzi, M., Mallon, C. A., Elhottova, D., Kristufek, V. & Salles, J. F. (2012). Microbial diversity determines the invasion of soil by a bacterial pathogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, 11591164.
  • Fargione, J., Tilman, D., Dybzinski, R., Lambers, J. H., Clark, C., Harpole, W. S., Knops, J. M., Reich, P. B. & Loreau, M. (2007). From selection to complementarity: shifts in the causes of biodiversity-productivity relationships in a long-term biodiversity experiment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 274, 871876.
  • Flynn, D. F., Gogol-Prokurat, M., Nogeire, T., Molinari, N., Richers, B. T., Lin, B. B., Simpson, N., Mayfield, M. M. & DeClerck, F. (2009). Loss of functional diversity under land use intensification across multiple taxa. Ecology Letters 12, 2233.
  • Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L. & Holling, C. S. (2004). Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35, 557581.
  • Gonzalez, A. & Loreau, M. (2009). The causes and consequences of compensatory dynamics in ecological communities. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 40, 393414.
  • Grime, J. P. (1998). Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects. Journal of Ecology 86, 902910.
  • Gunderson, L. H., Allen, C. R. & Holling, C. S. (2009). Foundation of Ecological Resilience. Island Press, Washington.
  • Haas, S. E., Hooten, M. B., Rizzo, D. M. & Meentemeyer, R. K. (2011). Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion. Ecology Letters 14, 11081116.
  • Hartley, S. E. & Amos, L. (1999). Competitive interactions between Nardus stricta L. and Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull: the effect of fertilizer and defoliation on above- and below-ground performance. Journal of Ecology 87, 330340.
  • Hector, A. & Bagchi, R. (2007). Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature 448, 188190.
  • Hector, A., Hautier, Y., Saner, P., Wacker, L., Bagchi, R., Joshi, J., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Spehn, E. M., Bazeley-White, E., Weilenmann, M., Caldeira, M. C., Dimitrakopoulos, P. G., Finn, J. A., Huss-Danell, K., Jumpponen, A., et al. (2010). General stabilizing effects of plant diversity on grassland productivity through population asynchrony and overyielding. Ecology 91, 22132220.
  • Hillebrand, H., Bennett, A. & Cadotte, M. W. (2008). The consequences of dominance: a review of the effects of evenness on local and regional ecosystem pocesses. Ecology 89, 15101520.
  • Hillebrand, H. & Matthiessen, B. (2009). Biodiversity in a complex world: consolidation and progress in functional biodiversity research. Ecology Letters 12, 14051419.
  • Hoey, A. S. & Bellwood, D. R. (2009). Limited functional redundancy in a high diversity system: single species dominates key ecological process on coral reefs. Ecosystems 12, 13161328.
  • Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4, 123.
  • Hooper, D. U., Adair, E. C., Cardinale, B. J., Byrnes, J. E. K., Hungate, B. A., Matulich, K. L., Gonzalez, A., Duffy, J. E., Gamfeldt, L. & O'Connor, M. I. (2012). A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. Nature 486, 105108.
  • Hooper, D. U., Chapin, F. S. I., Ewel, J. J., Hector, A., Inchausti, P., Lavorel, S., Lawton, J. H., Lodge, D., Loreau, M., Naeem, S., Schmid, B., Setälä, H., Symstad, A. J., Vandermeer, J. & Wardle, D. A. (2005). Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs 75, 335.
  • Horn, H. S. (1971). The Adaptive Geometry of Trees. Princeton University Press, London.
  • Isbell, F., Calcagno, V., Hector, A., Connolly, J., Harpole, W. S., Reich, P. B., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schmid, B., Tilman, D., van Ruijven, J., Weigelt, A., Wilsey, B. J., Zavaleta, E. S. & Loreau, M. (2011). High plant diversity is needed to maintain ecosystem services. Nature 477, 199202.
  • Isbell, F., Losure, D. A., Yurkonis, K. A. & Wilsey, B. J. (2008). Diversity productivity relationships in two ecologically realistic rarity-extinction scenarios. Oikos 117, 9961005.
  • Isbell, F. I., Polley, H. W. & Wilsey, B. J. (2009). Biodiversity, productivity and the temporal stability of productivity: patterns and processes. Ecology Letters 12, 443451.
  • Ives, A. R. & Cardinale, B. J. (2004). Food-web interactions govern the resistance of communities following nonrandom extinctions. Nature 429, 174177.
  • Joner, F., Specht, G., Müller, S. C. & Pillar, V. D. (2011). Functional redundancy in a clipping experiment on grassland plant communities. Oikos 120, 14201426.
  • Karp, D. S., Ziv, G., Zook, J., Ehrlich, P. R. & Daily, G. C. (2011). Resilience and stability in bird guilds across tropical countryside. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108, 2113421139.
  • Kattge, J., Díaz, S., Lavorel, S., Prentice, I. C., Leadley, P., Bönisch, G., Garnier, E., Westoby, M., Reich, P. B., Wright, I. J., Cornelissen, J. H. C., Violle, C., Harrison, S. P., Van Bodegom, P. M., Reichstein, M., et al. (2011). TRY – a global database of plant traits. Global Change Biology 17, 29052935.
  • Küppers, M. (1989). Ecological significance of aboveground architectural patterns in woody plants: a question of cost–benefit relationships. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 5, 375379.
  • Laliberté, E. & Legendre, P. (2010). A distance-based framework for measuring functional diversity from multiple traits. Ecology 91, 299305.
  • Laliberte, E., Wells, J. A., Declerck, F., Metcalfe, D. J., Catterall, C. P., Queiroz, C., Aubin, I., Bonser, S. P., Ding, Y., Fraterrigo, J. M., McNamara, S., Morgan, J. W., Merlos, D. S., Vesk, P. A. & Mayfield, M. M. (2010). Land-use intensification reduces functional redundancy and response diversity in plant communities. Ecology Letters 13, 7686.
  • Laughlin, D. C., Joshi, C., van Bodegom, P. M., Bastow, Z. A., Fule, P. Z. & Fukami, T. (2012). A predictive model of community assembly that incorporates intraspecific trait variation. Ecology Letters.
  • Lavorel, S., Grigulis, K., Lamarque, P., Colace, M.-P., Garden, D., Girel, J., Pellet, G. & Douzet, R. (2011). Using plant functional traits to understand the landscape distribution of multiple ecosystem services. Journal of Ecology 99, 135147.
  • Lawler, J. J. & Olden, J. D. (2011). Reframing the debate over assisted colonization. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9, 569574.
  • Leary, D. J. & Petchey, O. L. (2009). Testing a biological mechanism of the insurance hypothesis in experimental aquatic communities. Journal of Animal Ecology 78, 11431151.
  • Leibold, M. A., Holyoak, M., Moquet, N., Amarasekare, P., Chase, J. M., Hoopes, M. F., Holt, R. D., Shurin, J. B., Law, R., Tilman, D., Loreau, M. & Gonzalez, A. (2004). The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology Letters 7, 601613.
  • Lohbeck, M., Poorter, L., Paz, H., Pla, L., van Breugel, M., Martínez-Ramos, M. & Bongers, F. (2012). Functional diversity changes during tropical forest succession. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 14, 8996.
  • Loreau, M. (2004). Does functional redundancy exist? Oikos 104, 606611.
  • Loreau, M., Naeem, S., Inchausti, P., Bengtsson, J., Grime, J. P., Hector, A., Hooper, D. U., Huston, M. A., Raffaelli, D., Schmid, B., Tilman, D. & Wardle, D. A. (2001). Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: current knowledge and future challenges. Science 294, 804808.
  • Loreau, M., Oteng-Yeboah, A., Arroyo, M. T. K., Babin, D., Barbault, R., Donoghue, M., Gadgil, M., Häuser, C., Heip, C., Larigauderie, A., Ma, K., Mace, G., Mooney, H. A., Perrings, C., Raven, P., et al. (2006). Diversity without representation. Nature 442, 245246.
  • MacArthur, R. H. (1955). Fluctuations of animal populations and a measure of community stability. Ecology 36, 533535.
  • Mace, G. M., Norris, K. & Fitter, A. H. (2012). Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 27, 1926.
  • Maestre, F. T., Quero, J. L., Gotelli, N. J., Escudero, A., Ochoa, V., Delgado-Baquerizo, M., García-Gómez, M., Bowker, M. A., Soliveres, S., Escolar, C., García-Palacios, P., Berdugo, M., Valencia, E., Gozalo, B., Gallardo, A., et al. (2012). Plant species rchness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands. Science 335, 214218.
  • Mayfield, M. M., Bonser, S. P., Morgan, J. W., Aubin, I., McNamara, S. & Vesk, P. A. (2010). What does species richness tell us about functional trait diversity? Predictions and evidence for responses of species and functional trait diversity to land-use change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19, 423431.
  • McGill, B. J., Enquist, B. J., Weiher, E. & Westoby, M. (2006). Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21, 178185.
  • McGrady-Steed, J. & Morin, P. J. (2000). Biodiversity, density compensation, and the dynamics of populations and functional groups. Ecology 81, 361373.
  • McLaren, J. R. & Turkington, R. (2010). Ecosystem properties determined by plant functional group identity. Journal of Ecology 98, 459469.
  • Micheli, F. & Halpern, B. S. (2005). Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages. Ecology Letters 8, 391400.
  • Mori, A. S. (2011). Ecosystem management based on natural disturbances: hierarchical context and non-equilibrium paradigm. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 280292.
  • Mori, A. S., Mizumachi, E. & Sprugel, D. G. (2008). Morphological acclimation to understorey environments in Abies amabilis, a shade- and snow-tolerant conifer species of the Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA. Tree Physiology 28, 815824.
  • Mori, A. & Takeda, H. (2004). Functional relationships between crown morphology and within-crown characteristics of understory saplings of three codominant conifers in a subalpine forest in central Japan. Tree Physiology 24, 661670.
  • Naeem, S. (1998). Species redundancy and ecosystem reliability. Conservation Biology 12, 3945.
  • Naeem, S., Bunker, D. E., Hector, A., Loreau, M. & Perrings, C. (2009). Biodiversity, Ecosystem-Functioning, and Human Wellbeing. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Naeem, S., Duffy, J. E. & Zavaleta, E. (2012). The functions of biological diversity in an age of extinction. Science 336, 14011406.
  • Naeem, S. & Wright, J. P. (2003). Disentangling biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: deriving solutions to a seemingly insurmountable problem. Ecology Letters 6, 569579.
  • van Nes, E. H. & Scheffer, M. (2004). Large species shifts triggered by small forces. American Naturalist 164, 255266.
  • Niinemets, U. & Lukjanova, A. (2003). Total foliar area and average leaf age may be more strongly associated with branching frequency than with leaf longevity in temperate conifers. New Phytologist 158, 7589.
  • Pakeman, R. J. (2004). Consistency of plant species and trait responses to grazing along a productivity gradient: a multisite analysis. Journal of Ecology 92, 893905.
  • Perrings, C., Naeem, S., Ahrestani, F. S., Bunker, D. E., Burkill, P., Canziani, G., Elmqvist, T., Fuhrman, J. A., Jaksic, F. M., Kawabata, Z. I., Kinzig, A., Mace, G. M., Mooney, H., Prieur-Richard, A.-H., Tschirhart, J. & Weisser, W. (2011). Ecosystem services, targets, and indicators for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9, 512520.
  • Petchey, O. L., Evans, K. L., Fishburn, I. S. & Gaston, K. J. (2007). Low functional diversity and no redundancy in British avian assemblages. Journal of Animal Ecology 76, 977985.
  • Petchey, O. L. & Gaston, K. J. (2006). Functional diversity: back to basics and looking forward. Ecology Letters 9, 741758.
  • Peterson, G., Allen, C. R. & Holling, C. S. (1998). Ecological resilience, biodiversity, and scale. Ecosystems 1, 618.
  • Polasky, S., Nelson, E., Camm, J., Csuti, B., Fackler, P., Lonsdorf, E., Montgomery, C., White, D., Arthur, J., Garber-Yonts, B., Haight, R., Kagan, J., Starfield, A. & Tobalske, C. (2008). Where to put things? Spatial land management to sustain biodiversity and economic returns. Biological Conservation 141, 15051524.
  • Poorter, L. & Werger, M. J. A. (1999). Light environment, sapling architecture, and leaf display in six rain forest tree species. American Journal of Botany 86, 14641473.
  • Reich, P. B., Tilman, D., Isbell, F., Mueller, K., Hobbie, S. E., Flynn, D. F. & Eisenhauer, N. (2012). Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate through time as redundancy fades. Science 336, 589592.
  • Reich, P. B., Uhl, C., Walters, M. B. & Ellsworth, D. S. (1991). Leaf lifespan as a determinant of leaf structure and function among 23 amazonian tree species. Oecologia 86, 1624.
  • Reiss, J., Bridle, J. R., Montoya, J. M. & Woodward, G. (2009). Emerging horizons in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24, 505514.
  • Sala, O. E., Chapin, F. S. I., Armesto, J. J., Berlow, E., Bloomfield, J., Dirzo, R., Huber-Sanwald, E., Huenneke, L. F., Jackson, R. B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D. M., Mooney, H. A., Oesterheld, M., Poff, N. L., et al. (2000). Biodiversity–global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287, 17701774.
  • Sasaki, T. & Lauenroth, W. K. (2011). Dominant species, rather than diversity, regulates temporal stability of plant communities. Oecologia 166, 761768.
  • Sasaki, T., Ohkuro, T., Jamsran, U. & Takeuchi, K. (2012). Changes in the herbage nutritive value and yield associated with threshold responses of vegetation to grazing in Mongolian rangelands. Grass and Forage Science, 67, 446455.
  • Sasaki, T., Okubo, S., Okayasu, T., Jamsran, U. & Ohkuro, T. (2009a). Management applicability of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis across Mongolian rangeland ecosystems. Ecological Applications 19, 423432.
  • Sasaki, T., Okubo, S., Okayasu, T., Jamsran, U., Ohkuro, T. & Takeuchi, K. (2009b). Two-phase functional redundancy in plant communities along a grazing gradient in Mongolian rangelands. Ecology 90, 25982608.
  • Scheffer, M. & Carpenter, S. R. (2003). Catastrophic regime shifts in ecosystems: linking theory to observation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18, 648656.
  • Sekercioglu, C. H. (2006). Increasing awareness of avian ecological function. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21, 464471.
  • Selmants, P. C., Zavaleta, E. S., Pasari, J. R. & Hernandez, D. L. (2012). Realistic plant species losses reduce invasion resistance in a California serpentine grassland. Journal of Ecology 100, 723731.
  • Smith, M. N. & Knapp, A. K. (2003). Dominant species maintain ecosystem function with non-random species loss. Ecology Letters 6, 509517.
  • Srivastava, D. S. & Vellend, M. (2005). Biodiversity-ecosystem function research: is it relevant to conservation? Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36, 267294.
  • Suding, K. N. & Hobbs, R. J. (2009). Threshold models in restoration and conservation: a developing framework. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24, 271279.
  • Suding, K. N., Lavorel, S., Chapin, F. S., Cornelissen, J. H. C., Diaz, S., Garnier, E., Goldberg, D., Hooper, D. U., Jackson, S. T. & Navas, M.-L. (2008). Scaling environmental change through the community-level: a trait-based response-and-effect framework for plants. Global Change Biology 14, 11251140.
  • Thompson, R. & Starzomski, B. M. (2006). What does biodiversity actually do? A review for managers and policy makers. Biodiversity and Conservation 16, 13591378.
  • Tilman, D. & Lehman, C. (2001). Human-caused environmental change: impacts on plant diversity and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98, 54335440.
  • Tilman, D., Reich, P. B. & Isbell, F. (2012). Biodiversity impacts ecosystem productivity as much as resources, disturbance, or herbivory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
  • Tilman, D., Reich, P. B. & Knops, J. M. (2006). Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment. Nature 441, 629632.
  • Tscharntke, T., Klein, A. M., Kruess, A., Steffan-Dewenter, I. & Thies, C. (2005). Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity – ecosystem service management. Ecology Letters 8, 857874.
  • Tscharntke, T., Sekercioglu, C. H., Dietsch, T. V., Sodhi, N. S., Hoehn, P. & Tylianakis, J. M. (2008). Landscape constraints on functional diversity of birds and insects in tropical agroecosystems. Ecology 89, 944951.
  • Tscharntke, T., Tylianakis, J. M., Rand, T. A., Didham, R. K., Fahrig, L., Batary, P., Bengtsson, J., Clough, Y., Crist, T. O., Dormann, C. F., Ewers, R. M., Frund, J., Holt, R. D., Holzschuh, A., Klein, A. M., et al. (2012). Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes – eight hypotheses. Biological Reviews 87, 661685.
  • UNEP (2009). Ecosystem Management Programme: A New Approach to Sustainability. Division of Environmental Policy Implementation. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi.
  • Violle, C., Enquist, B. J., McGill, B. J., Jiang, L., Albert, C. H., Hulshof, C., Jung, V. & Messier, J. (2012). The return of the variance: intraspecific variability in community ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 27, 244252.
  • Walker, B. (1992). Biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Conservation Biology 6, 1823.
  • Walker, B. (1995). Conserving biological diversity through ecosystem resilience. Conservation Biology 9, 747752.
  • Walker, B., Carpenter, S., Anderies, J., Abel, N., Cumming, G., Janssen, M., Lebel, L., Norberg, J., Peterson, G. D. P. & Ritchard, R. (2002). Resilience management in social-ecological systems: a working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conservation Ecology 6, Article no.14. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol6/iss1/art14
  • Walker, B., Kinzig, A. & Langridge, J. (1999). Plant attribute diversity, resilience, and ecosystem function: the nature and significance of dominant and minor species. Ecosystems 2, 95113.
  • Wilson, D. S. (1992). Complex interactions in metacommunities, with implications for biodiversity and higher levels of selection. Ecology 73, 19842000.
  • Winfree, R. & Kremen, C. (2009). Are ecosystem services stabilized by differences among species? A test using crop pollination. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 276, 229237.
  • Wohl, D. L., Arora, S. & Gladstone, J. R. (2004). Functional redundancy supports biodiversity and ecosystem function in a closed and constant environment. Ecology 85, 15341540.
  • Yachi, S. & Loreau, M. (1999). Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity in a fluctuating environment: the insurance hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96, 14631468.
  • Zavaleta, E. S. & Hulbey, K. B. (2004). Realistic species losses disproportionately reduce grassland resistance to biological invaders. Science 306, 11751177.
  • Zavaleta, E. S., Pasari, J. R., Hulvey, K. B. & Tilman, G. D. (2010). Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, 14431446.
  • Zhang, Y., Chen, H. Y. H. & Reich, P. B. (2012). Forest productivity increases with evenness, species richness and trait variation: a global meta-analysis. Journal of Ecology 100, 742749.