These authors contributed equally to this work.
REG4 contributes to the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer by upregulating MMP-7 and MMP-9
Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2012
© 2012 Japanese Cancer Association
Volume 103, Issue 12, pages 2082–2091, December 2012
How to Cite
(Cancer Sci 2012; 103: 2082–2091)
- Issue online: 5 DEC 2012
- Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 7 SEP 2012 06:37AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 1 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 26 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 2 APR 2012
Recent studies have shown that overexpression of regenerating gene family member 4 (REG4) is associated with the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. In our study, we explored the role of REG4 in the invasion of pancreatic cancer. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine REG4 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines. An MTT assay was carried out to test the effect of REG4 on the growth of pancreatic cancer cells. The involvement of REG4 in cancer cell invasion was examined by Transwell invasion assay. Two MMPs, MMP-7 and MMP-9, were identified from a pool of candidate genes as being related to REG4-induced cell invasion by PCR and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the correlation between REG4 and the two MMPs. High expression of REG4 was found in BXPC-3 cells and its culture media. But in PANC-1 and ASPC-1 cell lines, REG4 expression levels were very low, and no detectable protein was found in the culture medium. The MTT and Transwell invasion assays showed that recombinant REG4 protein and BXPC-3 conditioned media significantly promoted the proliferation and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. It was also shown that MMP-7 and MMP-9 are upregulated by REG4 induction using real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Immunohistochemical study further verified this result. In conclusion, REG4 promotes not only growth but also in vitro invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells by upregulating MMP-7 and MMP-9.