• 1
    Winer RL, Lee SK, Hughes JP, Adam DE, Kiviat NB, Koutsky LA. Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 157: 21826.
  • 2
    Fairley CK, Gay NJ, Forbes A, Abramson M, Garland SM. Hand-genital transmission of genital warts? An analysis of prevalence data Epidemiol Infect 1995; 115: 16976.
  • 3
    Herrero R, Castellsagué X, Pawlita M et al. Human papillomavirus and oral cancer: the International Agency for Research on Cancer multicenter study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 177283.
  • 4
    Yoshikawa H, Matsukura T, Yoshiike K, Yamamoto E, Kawana T, Mizuno M. Human papillomavirus DNA in female condylomata. Acta Obstet Gynecol Jpn 1985; 37: 122530.
  • 5
    Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. Annual surveillance data (sentinel-reporting diseases): sexually-transmitted diseases. [Cited 18 Jun 2012.] Available from URL:
  • 6
    Tokunaga H, Okamura C, Yaegashi N. Current status and therapeutic strategy of STD HPV, condyloma acuminatum. Obstet Gynecol Pract 2003; 52: 211120.
  • 7
    Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol 1999; 189: 129.
  • 8
    Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide. IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2010. [Cited 26 Aug 2010.] Available from URL:
  • 9
    Pagliusi SR, Aguado MT. Efficacy and other milestones for human papillomavirus vaccine introduction. Vaccine 2004; 23: 56978.
  • 10
    Ministry of Health, Labour & Walfare. Vital statistics of Japan. [Cited 26 Aug 2010.] Available from URL: 04.pdf.
  • 11
    Patient Survey, Statistics and Information Department, MHLW 1996, 1999 and 2002. [Cited 26 Aug 2010.] Available from URL:
  • 12
    Mori M, Sagae S. Recent progress in epidemiologic research of uterine cancer. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2001; 28: 1748.
  • 13
    Miura S, Matsumoto K, Oki A et al. Do we need a different strategy for HPV screening and vaccination in East Asia? Int J Cancer 2006; 119: 27135.
  • 14
    Onuki M, Matsumoto K, Satoh T et al. Human papillomavirus infections among Japanese women: age-related prevalence and type-specific risk for cervical cancer. Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 13126.
  • 15
    Villa LL, Costa RL, Petta CA et al. Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial. Lancet Oncol 2005; 6: 2718.
  • 16
    Ministerial Ordinance on Good Clinical Practice for Drugs. Ordinance of the Ministry of Health and Welfare No. 28 of March 27, 1997. [Cited 13 Feb 2013.] Available from URL:
  • 17
    Solomon D, Davey D, Kurman R et al. The 2001 Bethesda system: terminology for reporting results of cervical cytology. JAMA 2002; 287: 21149.
  • 18
    Wright TC Jr, Cox JT, Massad LS, Twiggs LB, Wilkinson EJ. 2001 consensus guidelines for the management of women with cervical cytological abnormalities. JAMA 2002; 287: 21209.
  • 19
    Stoler MH, Schiffman M. Interobserver reproducibility of cervical cytologic and histologic interpretations: realistic estimates from the ASCUS-LSIL triage study. JAMA 2004; 285: 15006.
  • 20
    Opalka D, Lachman CE, MacMullen SA, Hall K, Leiserowitz GS. Simultaneous quantitation of antibodies to neutralizing epitopes on virus-like particles for human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by a multiplexed luminex assay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2003; 10: 10815.
  • 21
    Christensen ND, Reed CA, Cladel NM, Hall K, Leiserowitz GS. Monoclonal antibodies to HPV-6 L1 virus-like particles identify conformational and linear neutralizing epitopes on HPV-11 in addition to type-specific epitopes on HPV-6. Virology 1996; 224: 47786.
  • 22
    Christensen ND, Dillner J, Eklund C et al. Surface conformational and linear epitopes on HPV-16 and HPV-18 L1 virus-like particles as defined by monoclonal antibodies. Virology 1996; 223: 17484.
  • 23
    Wheeler CM, Kjaer SK, Sigurdsson K et al. The impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV; types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine on infection and disease due to oncogenic nonvaccine HPV types in sexually active women aged 16–26 years. J Infect Dis 2009; 199: 93644.
  • 24
    FUTURE II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 191527.
  • 25
    Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers; Summary Report Update. (JAPAN & WORLD) 15 September 2010. WHO/ICO HPV information centre. [Cited 13 Feb 2013.] Available from URL:
  • 26
    Christensen ND, Cladel NM, Reed CA et al. Hybrid papillomavirus L1 molecules assemble into virus-like particles that reconstitute conformational epitopes and induce neutralizing antibodies to distinct HPV types. Virology 2001; 291: 32434.
  • 27
    Dias D, Van Doren J, Schlottmann S et al. Optimization and validation of a multiplexed luminex assay to quantify antibodies to neutralizing epitopes on human papillomaviruses 6, 11, 16, and 18. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005; 12: 95969.
  • 28
    Joura EA, Kjaer SK, Wheeler CM et al. HPV antibody levels and clinical efficacy following administration of a prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine. Vaccine 2008; 26: 684451.
  • 29
    Roberts C, Swoyer R, Bryan J. Evaluation of the HPV 18 antibody response in Gardasil® vaccinees after 48 mo using a pseudovirion neutralization assay. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2012; 8: 4314.
  • 30
    Olsson SE, Villa LL, Costa RL et al. Induction of immune memory following administration of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Vaccine 2007; 25: 49319.
  • 31
    Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Gurrin LC, Chen MY, Donovan B, Bradshaw CS. Rapid decline in presentations of genital warts after the implementation of a national quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination programme for young women. Sex Transm Infect 2009; 85: 499502.
  • 32
    Brotherton JM, Fridman M, May CL, Chappell G, Saville AM, Gertig DM. Early effect of the HPV vaccination program on cervical abnormalities in Victoria, Australia: an ecological study. Lancet 2011; 377: 208592.