Doc. S1. Supplementary experimental procedure.

Fig. S1. Cell cycle distribution of S-phase synchronized HeLa cells, quantification of Figure 1(b); ATM activation in HeLa cells transfected with siATR, quantification of Fig. 1(b) .

Fig. S2. Magnified image of γH2AX and RPA2 foci and signal intensity chromatographs.

Fig. S3. RPA2 and phosphorylated ATM colocalization after hydroxyurea treatment, analyzed by immunofluorescence.

Fig. S4. Camptothecin (CPT) induces double-strand breaks.

Fig. S5. Cell cycle profiles of shRNA transfected HeLa cells.

Fig. S6. Quantitation of immunofluorescence data shown in Figure 5(b). Magnified image of phospho-DNA-PKcs (T2609) and RPA2 fociand signal intensity chromatographs. Artemis-independent activation of DNA-PKcs analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence.

Fig. S7. Generation of DSBs dependent on DNA-PKcs analyzed by comet assay.

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