• Open Access

In This Issue

Hexokinase II in breast carcinoma: A potent prognostic factor associated with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and Ki-67

Tissue hypoxia is known to play an important role in cancer death and is a topic of much research in the battle against cancer. Some tumor cells have the ability to adapt to a hypoxic environment, but little is known about how this is accomplished. One potential mechanism that previous investigations have revealed is gene expression as a result of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. To investigate this mechanism further, Sato-Tadano and colleagues studied microarray data from breast cancer samples from human subjects. The authors found that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was associated with cancer recurrence. Further work with immunohistochemistry using 118 breast carcinomas demonstrated that one of the induced genes, hexokinase II (HK2), carried prognostic value as it correlates with patient disease-free survival. This work is the first to show that HK2 plays a role in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-mediated tumor progression.doi: 10.1111/cas.12238


CA-S27: A novel Lewis A associated carbohydrate epitope is diagnostic and prognostic for cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a frequently fatal cancer of the liver that can be treated surgically if identified prior to the development of metastatic disease. However, a sensitive biomarker to identify these cancers is not currently available. In their exciting work, Silsirivanit et al. provide a thorough investigation into such biomarkers. Through their study, the authors identified a cancer antigen (CA-S27) that correlated with the presence of CCA and survival. They went on to develop a monoclonal antibody to identify CA-S27, which might provide new inroads into the development of a biomarker for this potentially deadly cancer. Last, the authors go on to investigate the mechanism by which CA-S27 is involved in tumor survival and progression. They report that this cancer antigen is involved in a number of important roles in cancer growth and invasion, suggesting it is an important factor in the progression of CCA.doi: 10.1111/cas.12222


Functional role of CD44v-xCT system in the development of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia

The development of cancer from normal tissues is a process that involves many sequential stages. In the stomach, carcinogenesis involves the gradual histological transition of normal tissue through dysplasia to a cancerous lesion. One cell surface protein, CD44v, is a prominent marker in the progression towards malignancy, but its role is not well understood. Here, Wada and colleagues provide an in-depth analysis using a mouse model of stomach cancer to show that CD44v interacts with other proteins to impair cellular responses to damage, such as via reactive oxygen species. These data show that CD44v and its related proteins are integral contributors to the process of metaplasia in stomach cancer. These findings might be used in the future to drive further research and potentially develop therapeutic interventions to halt dysplastic progression.doi: 10.1111/cas.12236