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Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) frequently show different clinical and pathological features, which tend to be younger age, better performance status, less tobacco and alcohol consumption, more poorly differentiated histopathology, but usually with better treatment response and prognosis compared with HPV-negative OPSCCs. In tumor tissue, HPV infection is closely correlated with p16INK4A expression, which has been suggested to be a surrogate biomarker of HPV infection. However, there is diversity of sensitivity and specificity about p16INK4A in surrogate detection of HPV status. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge and note some aspects for consideration concerning p16INK4A as a surrogate biomarker for HPV-associated OPSCC.