• 1
    Richman D.D., Fischel M.A., Grieco M.H., Gottlieb M.S., Volberling P.A., Laskin O.L., Leedom J.M., Groopman J.E., Mildvan D., Hirsch M.S., Jackson G.G., Durck D.T., Nusinoff-Lehrman S. (1987) The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med;317:192197.
  • 2
    Charlo P., Drogou I., De Lacroix-Szmania I., Elizer-Venerot M.C., Chazaut B., Lombes A., Schaffer A., Zafrani E.S. (1999) Zidovudine-induced mitochondrial disorder with massive liver steatosis, myopathy, lactic acidodsis, and mitochondrial DNA depletion. J Hepatol;30:156160.
  • 3
    Grothuis D.R., Levy R.M. (1997) The entry of antiviral and antiretroviral drugs into the central nervous system. J Neurol;3:387400.
  • 4
    Girard P.M., Pegram P.S., Diquet B., Anderson R., Raffi F., Tubiana R., Sereni D., Boerner D. (2000) Phase II placebo-controlled trial for fozivudine tidoxil for HIV infection: pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and efficacy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr;23:227235.
  • 5
    Cload P.A. (1989) A review of pharmacokinetics of zidovudine in man. J Infect;18(Suppl. 1):1521.
  • 6
    Johnson V.A., Brun-Vézinet F., Clotet B., Günthard H.F., Kuritzkes D.R., Pillay D., Schapiro J.M., Richman D.D. (2010) Update of the drug resistance mutations in HIV-1. Top HIV Med;18:156163.
  • 7
    Lolekha R., Sirivichayakul S., Siangphoe U., Pancharoen C., Kaewchana S., Apateerapong W., Mahanontharit A., Chotpitayasunondh T., Ruxrungtham K., Phanuphak P., Ananworanich J. (2005) Resistance to dual nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in children infected with HIV clade A/E. Clin Infect Dis;40:309312.
  • 8
    Beaumont K., Webster R., Gardner I., Dack K. (2003) Design of ester prodrugs to enhance oral absorption of poorly permeable compounds: challenges to the discovery scientist. Curr Drug Metab;4:461485.
  • 9
    Calogeropoulou T., Detsi A., Lekkas E., Koufaki M. (2003) Strategies in the design of prodrugs of anti-HIV agents. Curr Top Med Chem;3:14671495.
  • 10
    Kravchenko A.V. (2004) The use of H-phosphonate AZT in a cocktail for antiretroviral therapy. Meditsynskaya kafedra (Rus);2:9092, 166–172.
  • 11
    Skoblov Y., Karpenko I., Shirokova E., Popov K., Andronova V., Galegov G., Kukhanova M. (2004) Intracellular metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 5′-hydrogenphosphonate of 3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine, a prodrug of 3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine. Antiviral Res;63:107113.
  • 12
    Kukhanova M.K., Shirokova E.A. (2005) 5′-O-modified nucleoside analogues as prodrugs of anti-HIV agents. In: Schinazi R.F., Liotta D.C., editors. Frontiers in Nucleic Acids. Tucker, USA: IHL Press; p. 339341.
  • 13
    Khandazhinskaya A., Matyugina E., Shirokova E. (2010) Anti-HIV therapy with AZT prodrugs: AZT phosphonate derivatives, current state and prospects. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol;6:701714.
  • 14
    Shirokova E.A., Jasko M.V., Khandazhinskaya A.L., Ivanov A.V., Yanvarev D.V., Skoblov Yu.S., Mitkevich V.A., Bocharov E.V., Pronaeva T.R., Feddyuk N.V., Kukhanova M.K., Pokrovsky A.G. (2004) Uncharged AZT and D4T derivatives of phosphoformic and phosphonoacetic acids as anti-HIV pronucleotides. J Med Chem;47:36063614.
  • 15
    Fisenko V.P. (2005) Study of preclinical pharmacokinetics of novel pharmacologically active compounds and drugs. In: Khabriev R.U., editor. Guidelines on Experimental (Preclinical) Studies of Novel Pharmacologically Active Compounds. Moscow: Meditsina Publishers; p. 217230.
  • 16
    Khabriev R.U. (2005) Study of toxicity of pharmacologically active compounds. In: Khabriev R.U., editor. Guidelines on Experimental (Preclinical) Studies of Novel Pharmacologically Active Compounds. Moscow: Meditsina Publishers; p. 4154.
  • 17
    Chang S.-L., Griesgraber G., Abraham T.W., Garg T., Song H., Zimmerman C.L., Wagner C.R. (2000) Synthesis and antiviral activity of amino acid carbamate derivatives of AZT. Nucleosides, Nucleotides Nucleic Acids;19:87100.
  • 18
    Anastasi C., Vlieghe P., Hantz O., Schorr O., Pannecouque C., Witvrouw M., De Clercq E., Clayette P., Dereuddre-Bosquet N., Dormont D., Gondois-Rey F., Hirsch I., Kraus J.L. (2003) Are 5′-O-carbamate-2′,3′-dideoxythiacytidine new anti-HIV and anti-HBV nucleoside drugs or prodrugs? Bioorg Med Chem Lett;13:24592463.
  • 19
    Khandazhinskaya A.L., Yanvarev D.V., Jasko M.V., Shipitsin A.V., Khalizev V.A., Shram S.I., Skoblov Y.S., Shirokova E.A., Kukhanova M.K. (2009) 5′-Aminocarbonyl phosphonates as new zidovudine depot forms: antiviral properties, intracellular transformations, and pharmacokinetic parameters. Drug Metab Dispos;37:494501. Erratum in: (2010) Drug Metab Dispos 38 (7): 1258.
  • 20
    Vlieghe P., Clerc T., Pannecouque C., Witvrouw M., De Clercq E., Salles J.P., Kraus J.L. (2001) New 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidin-5′-yl O-(4-hydroxyalkyl or alkenyl or alkylepoxide) carbonate prodrugs: synthesis and anti-HIV evaluation. J Med Chem;44:30143021.
  • 21
    Hammer K., Hatlelid J., Grotli M., Arukwe J., Klaveness J., Rise F., Undheim K. (1996) Ether, carbonate and urethane deoxynucleoside derivatives as prodrugs. Acta Chem Scand;50:609622.