Get access

Study of Binding Thermodynamics in the Optimization of BH3 Mimetics

Authors


Abstract

The use of small molecule B-cell lymphoma 2 homology domain 3 mimetics to neutralize the B-cell lymphoma 2 protein is an attractive strategy for cancer treatment due to its ability to cause targeted cell apoptosis. We have previously reported the design and optimization of a series of B-cell lymphoma 2 homology domain 3-mimetics, called compounds 16. In this study, we evaluated the optimization of B-cell lymphoma 2 homology domain 3-mimetics from a thermodynamic perspective. Understanding the thermodynamic parameters of B-cell lymphoma 2 homology domain 3-mimetics plays a critical role in the development of B-cell lymphoma 2 small-molecule inhibitors. The thermodynamic parameters for the interactions of these compounds with the myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 protein were obtained using isothermal titration calorimetry. Owing to compounds 16 overcoming enthalpy–entropy compensation, the affinities of them improved gradually. Toward binding to the myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 protein, compound 6 was deemed optimal with an obtained Kd value of 238 nm, which is a 104-fold improvement compared with 1. Analysis of the enthalpy and −TΔS efficiencies showed that ligand efficiencies with respect to molecular size are correlated with the enthalpic efficiencies. Notably, an enthalpy gain of 4.65 kcal/mol identified that an additional hydrogen bond is formed by 2 with myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 compared with compound 1. For the first time, hydrogen bonding between a small-molecule inhibitor of B-cell lymphoma 2 was demonstrated experimentally.

Ancillary