Novel 3-Substituted Ocotillol-Type Triterpenoid Derivatives as Antibacterial Candidates



Plant-derived triterpenoid saponins are involved in the plant defense system by targeting bacterial membranes. A series of ocotillol-type triterpenoid derivatives were synthesized starting from PPD, one of the main components of Panax ginseng and their antibacterial activity against several representative bacteria were evaluated. Compounds 5 and 11 exhibited excellent antibacterial activity with MIC values of 1 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and 8 μg/mL and 4 μg/mL against Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Furthermore, when compounds 5 and 11 were combined with two commercial antibiotics kanamycin and chloramphenicol, they showed strong synergistic activity at sub-MIC levels against S. aureus USA300 and B. subtilis 168. Moreover, chloramphenicol turned from a bacteriostatic to a bactericidal agent when combined with compound 11 against B. subtilis 168.