Elizabeth A. Gunderson is now at Temple University. This research was supported by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Grant P01HD40605 to Susan Goldin-Meadow and Susan C. Levine, and by National Center for Education Research Grant R305C050076 to Elizabeth Gunderson. We thank Kristi Schonwald, Jodi Khan, and Jason Voigt for administrative and technical support, and Laura Chang, Elaine Croft, Ashley Drake, Kristen Duboc, Lauren Graham, Jennifer Griffin, Kristen Jezior, Lauren King, Max Masich, Erica Mellum, Josey Mintel, Jana Oberholtzer, Emily Ostergaard, Lilia Rissman, Rebecca Seibel, Calla Trofatter, Kevin Uttich, Julie Wallman, and Kristin Walters for help in data collection, transcription, and coding. We also are grateful to the participating children and families.
Parent Praise to 1- to 3-Year-Olds Predicts Children's Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later
Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Volume 84, Issue 5, pages 1526–1541, September/October 2013
How to Cite
Gunderson, E. A., Gripshover, S. J., Romero, C., Dweck, C. S., Goldin-Meadow, S. and Levine, S. C. (2013), Parent Praise to 1- to 3-Year-Olds Predicts Children's Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later. Child Development, 84: 1526–1541. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12064
- Issue online: 3 SEP 2013
- Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2013
- National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Grant Number: P01HD40605
- National Center for Education Research. Grant Number: R305C050076
In laboratory studies, praising children's effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks—they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children's inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed-ability frameworks. Does the praise parents spontaneously give children at home show the same effects? Although parents' early praise of inherent characteristics was not associated with children's later fixed-ability frameworks, parents' praise of children's effort at 14–38 months (N = 53) did predict incremental frameworks at 7–8 years, suggesting that causal mechanisms identified in experimental work may be operating in home environments.