This research was supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (F31HD055113) with additional funding from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation New Century Scholars Doctoral Fellowship, University of Minnesota College of Liberal Arts Student Dissertation Research Activity Award, and Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences Bryng Bryngelson Research Award. Portions of this study were presented at the 2010 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention in Chicago, Illinois, and the 2012 Society for Research in Child Development Themed Meeting: Positive Development of Minority Children in Tampa, Florida. We thank Moin Syed, Edward Carney, and Jeffrey Long for statistical and technical support, Hai Anh Nguyen for her role as school and community liaison, the participants recruited from Hillcrest Foreign Language Academy, and Kerry Ebert for her input on previous versions of this manuscript. We acknowledge the following individuals for assistance with data collection and management: Tien Pham, Amelia Medina, Irene Hien Duong, Kelann Lobitz, Kimson Nguyen, Xuan Tang, Ellyn Dam, Bao Dang, Ly Nguyen, Samantha Yang, Maura Arnoldy, and Renata Solum.
A Longitudinal Study of Lexical Development in Children Learning Vietnamese and English
Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Volume 85, Issue 2, pages 767–782, March/April 2014
How to Cite
Pham, G. and Kohnert, K. (2014), A Longitudinal Study of Lexical Development in Children Learning Vietnamese and English. Child Development, 85: 767–782. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12137
- Issue online: 17 MAR 2014
- Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013
- National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Grant Number: F31HD055113
- American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation
- University of Minnesota College of Liberal Arts
This longitudinal study modeled lexical development among children who spoke Vietnamese as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Participants (n = 33, initial mean age of 7.3 years) completed a total of eight tasks (four in each language) that measured vocabulary knowledge and lexical processing at four yearly time points. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling was used to calculate L1 and L2 trajectories within the same model for each task. Main findings included (a) positive growth in each language, (b) greater gains in English resulting in shifts toward L2 dominance, and (c) different patterns for receptive and expressive domains. Timing of shifts to L2 dominance underscored L1 skills that are resilient and vulnerable to increases in L2 proficiency.