The authors wish it to be known that the first two authors should be regarded as joint first authors. We gratefully acknowledge the ongoing contribution of the parents and children in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). TEDS is supported by a program grant (G0901245; and previously G0500079) from the U.K. Medical Research Council (MRC), with additional support from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (HD044454 and HD059215). R.P. is supported by a Medical Research Council Research Professorship award (G19/2) and a European Advanced Investigator award (295366). Genome-wide genotyping was made possible by grants from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 project (085475/B/08/Z; 085475/Z/08/Z); see below for membership of WTCCC2 and member affiliations. M.T. is supported by a Medical Research Council studentship.
Word Reading Fluency: Role of Genome-Wide Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Developmental Stability and Correlations With Print Exposure
Article first published online: 6 JAN 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Volume 85, Issue 3, pages 1190–1205, May/June 2014
How to Cite
Harlaar, N., Trzaskowski, M., Dale, P. S. and Plomin, R. (2014), Word Reading Fluency: Role of Genome-Wide Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Developmental Stability and Correlations With Print Exposure. Child Development, 85: 1190–1205. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12207
- Issue published online: 10 MAY 2014
- Article first published online: 6 JAN 2014
- U.K. Medical Research Council. Grant Numbers: G0901245, G0500079
- U.S. National Institutes of Health. Grant Numbers: HD044454, HD059215
- Medical Research Council
- European Advanced Investigator award. Grant Number: 295366
- Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2
The genetic effects on individual differences in reading development were examined using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) in a twin sample. In unrelated individuals (one twin per pair, n = 2,942), the GCTA-based heritability of reading fluency was ~20%–29% at ages 7 and 12. GCTA bivariate results showed that the phenotypic stability of reading fluency from 7 to 12 years (r = 0.69) is largely driven by genetic stability (genetic r = 0.69). Genetic effects on print exposure at age 12 were moderate (~26%) and correlated with those influencing reading fluency at 12 (genetic r = 0.89), indicative of a gene–environment correlation. These findings were largely consistent with quantitative genetic twin analyses that used both twins in each pair (n = 1,066–1,409).