This research was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant R01MH07454 and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Grant R37HD17899 awarded to Nathan A. Fox.
Empirical Article: Accepted Under Cynthia Garcia Coll's Editorship
Infant Attachment Security and Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition Interact to Predict Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms
Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Volume 86, Issue 2, pages 598–613, March/April 2015
How to Cite
Lewis-Morrarty, E., Degnan, K. A., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Pine, D. S., Henderson, H. A. and Fox, N. A. (2015), Infant Attachment Security and Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition Interact to Predict Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms. Child Development, 86: 598–613. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12336
- Issue online: 25 MAR 2015
- Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2014
- National Institute of Mental Health. Grant Number: R01MH07454
- National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Grant Number: R37HD17899
Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14–17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multimethod BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed.