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Figure S1. Plot of trigonometric function to adjust maternal vitamin D for season.

Figure S2. Illustrative plot showing the derivation of the maternal 25(OH)D exposures.

Figure S3. Distribution of 25(OH)D in the mother.

Figure S4. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for offspring atopic outcomes comparing across thresholds of maternal 25(OH)D (< 50 nmol/L; 50–74.99 nmol/L (reference class); ≥ 75 nmol/L).

Figure S5. Crude and adjusted mean difference in pulmonary function outcomes (SD units) between thresholds of maternal 25(OH)D (< 50 nmol/L; 50–74.99 nmol/L (reference class); ≥ 75 nmol/L)

Figure S6. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for offspring atopic outcomes comparing across thresholds of maternal 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L (reference class); ≥ 75 nmol/L).

Figure S7. Crude and adjusted mean difference in pulmonary function outcomes (SD units) across a threshold of maternal 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L (reference), ≥ 75 nmol/L).

Figure S8. Crude and adjusted mean difference in pulmonary function outcomes (SD units) between thresholds of maternal 25(OH)D (< 27.5 nmol/L, 27.5–49.9 nmol/L; 50+ (reference class); ≥ 75 nmol/L).

Figure S9. Crude and adjusted associations between maternal 25(OH)D (nmol/L) and longitudinal wheeze phenotypes.

Figure S10. Crude and adjusted associations between maternal 25(OH)D (nmolL) and lung function at 15 y.

Figure S11. Complete case analysis.

Figure S12. Complete case analysis.

Table S1. Description of potential confounders and mediators and models

Table S2. Unadjusted associations of maternal characteristics with 25(OH)D in pregnancy. = 5513a

Table S3. Coefficients for the results presented in Figures 2 and 3 of the main text. The coefficients (β) are odds ratios compared to the reference quintile unless stated. See supplementary Table S1 and methods in main text for a description of models

Table S4. Estimated probability of wheeze at each age by each latent class of wheeze.

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