Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an atopic disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in which dietary antigens (in particular, milk) play a major role. EoE is most likely a mixed IgE and non-IgE food-mediated reaction in which overexpression of Th2 cytokines, particularly IL-13, play a major role; however, the cells responsible for IL-13 overexpression remain elusive. Th2-cytokines are secreted following the ligation of invariant natural killer T cell receptors to sphingolipids (SLs). Sphingolipids (SLs) are presented via the CD1d molecule on the INKTs surface. Cow's milk-derived SL has been shown to activate iNKTs from children with IgE-mediated food allergies to milk (FA-MA) to produce Th2 cytokines. The role of iNKTs and milk-SL in EoE pathogenesis is currently unknown.