• humanized mice;
  • IL-2R ‘common’ gamma chain;
  • SCID;
  • T cell


Immunodeficient mice bearing targeted mutations in the IL2rg gene and engrafted with human immune systems are effective tools for the study of human haematopoiesis, immunity, infectious disease and transplantation biology. The most robust human immune model is generated by implantation of human fetal thymic and liver tissues in irradiated recipients followed by intravenous injection of autologous fetal liver haematopoietic stem cells [often referred to as the BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) model]. To evaluate the non-obese diabetic (NOD)-scid IL2rγnull (NSG)–BLT model, we have assessed various engraftment parameters and how these parameters influence the longevity of NSG–BLT mice. We observed that irradiation and subrenal capsule implantation of thymus/liver fragments was optimal for generating human immune systems. However, after 4 months, a high number of NSG–BLT mice develop a fatal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-like syndrome, which correlates with the activation of human T cells and increased levels of human immunoglobulin (Ig). Onset of GVHD was not delayed in NSG mice lacking murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I or II and was not associated with a loss of human regulatory T cells or absence of intrathymic cells of mouse origin (mouse CD45+). Our findings demonstrate that NSG–BLT mice develop robust human immune systems, but that the experimental window for these mice may be limited by the development of GVHD-like pathological changes.