• 1
    Fuss IJ, Heller F, Boirivant M et al. Nonclassical CD1d-restricted NK T cells that produce IL-13 characterize an atypical Th2 response in ulcerative colitis. J Clin Invest 2004; 113:14901497.
  • 2
    Fuss IJ, Strober W. The role of IL-13 and NK T cells in experimental and human ulcerative colitis. Mucosal Immunol 2008; 1 (Suppl. 1):S3133.
  • 3
    Heller F, Florian P, Bojarski C et al. Interleukin-13 is the key effector Th2 cytokine in ulcerative colitis that affects epithelial tight junctions, apoptosis, and cell restitution. Gastroenterology 2005; 129:550564.
  • 4
    Treiner E, Duban L, Moura IC, Hansen T, Gilfillan S, Lantz O. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells: an evolutionarily conserved T cell subset. Microbes Infect 2005; 7:552559.
  • 5
    Tilloy F, Treiner E, Park SH et al. An invariant T cell receptor alpha chain defines a novel TAP-independent major histocompatibility complex class Ib-restricted alpha/beta T cell subpopulation in mammals. J Exp Med 1999; 189:19071921.
  • 6
    Treiner E, Duban L, Bahram S et al. Selection of evolutionarily conserved mucosal-associated invariant T cells by MR1. Nature 2003; 422:164169.
  • 7
    Martin E, Treiner E, Duban L et al. Stepwise development of MAIT cells in mouse and human. PLOS Biol 2009; 7:e54.
  • 8
    Dusseaux M, Martin E, Serriari N et al. Human MAIT cells are xenobiotic-resistant, tissue-targeted, CD161hi IL-17-secreting T cells. Blood 2011; 117:12501259.
  • 9
    Le Bourhis L, Martin E, Peguillet I et al. Antimicrobial activity of mucosal-associated invariant T cells. Nat Immunol 2010; 11:701708.
  • 10
    Kjer-Nielsen L, Patel O, Corbett AJ et al. MR1 presents microbial vitamin B metabolites to MAIT cells. Nature 2012; 491:717723.
  • 11
    Le Bourhis L, Guerri L, Dusseaux M, Martin E, Soudais C, Lantz O. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells: unconventional development and function. Trends Immunol 2011; 32:212218.
  • 12
    Billerbeck E, Kang YH, Walker L et al. Analysis of CD161 expression on human CD8+ T cells defines a distinct functional subset with tissue-homing properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107:30063011.
  • 13
    Annibali V, Ristori G, Angelini DF et al. CD161(high)CD8+T cells bear pathogenetic potential in multiple sclerosis. Brain 2011; 134:542554.
  • 14
    Chiba A, Tajima R, Tomi C, Miyazaki Y, Yamamura T, Miyake S. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells promote inflammation and exacerbate disease in murine models of arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2012; 64:153161.
  • 15
    Giacomelli R, Parzanese I, Frieri G et al. Increase of circulating gamma/delta T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients affected by active inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Immunol 1994; 98:8388.
  • 16
    Pariente B, Mocan I, Camus M et al. Activation of the receptor NKG2D leads to production of Th17 cytokines in CD4+ T cells of patients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2011; 141:217226, 26 e1–2.
  • 17
    Allez M, Tieng V, Nakazawa A et al. CD4+NKG2D+ T cells in Crohn's disease mediate inflammatory and cytotoxic responses through MICA interactions. Gastroenterology 2007; 132:23462358.
  • 18
    Kaser A, Zeissig S, Blumberg RS. Inflammatory bowel disease. Annu Rev Immunol 2010; 28:573621.
  • 19
    Gold MC, Cerri S, Smyk-Pearson S et al. Human mucosal associated invariant T cells detect bacterially infected cells. PLoS Biol 2010; 8:e1000407.
  • 20
    Peterfalvi A, Gomori E, Magyarlaki T et al. Invariant Valpha7.2-Jalpha33 TCR is expressed in human kidney and brain tumors indicating infiltration by mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. Int Immunol 2008; 20:15171525.
  • 21
    Leeansyah E, Ganesh A, Quigley MF et al. Activation, exhaustion and persistent decline of the anti-microbial MR1-restricted MAIT cell population in chronic HIV-1 infection. Blood 2013; 121:11241135.
  • 22
    Cosgrove C, Ussher JE, Rauch A et al. Early and non-reversible decrease of CD161++/MAIT cells in HIV infection. Blood 2013; 121:951956.
  • 23
    Serriari NE, Gondois-Rey F, Guillaume Y et al. B and T lymphocyte attenuator is highly expressed on CMV-specific T cells during infection and regulates their function. J Immunol 2010; 185:31403148.
  • 24
    Zhang C, Zhang J, Niu J, Zhang J, Tian Z. Interleukin-15 improves cytotoxicity of natural killer cells via up-regulating NKG2D and cytotoxic effector molecule expression as well as STAT1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Cytokine 2008; 42:128136.
  • 25
    Zhang C, Zhang J, Niu J, Zhou Z, Zhang J, Tian Z. Interleukin-12 improves cytotoxicity of natural killer cells via upregulated expression of NKG2D. Hum Immunol 2008; 69:490500.
  • 26
    Marwaha AK, Leung NJ, McMurchy AN, Levings MK. TH17 cells in autoimmunity and immunodeficiency: protective or pathogenic? Front Immunol 2012; 3:129.
  • 27
    Strober W, Fuss IJ. Proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastroenterology 2011; 140:17561767.
  • 28
    Dunne MR, Elliott L, Hussey S et al. Persistent changes in circulating and intestinal gammadelta T cell subsets, invariant natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells in children and adults with coeliac disease. PLOS ONE 2013; 8:e76008.
  • 29
    Rajilic-Stojanovic M, Shanahan F, Guarner F, de Vos WM. Phylogenetic analysis of dysbiosis in ulcerative colitis during remission. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013; 19:481488.
  • 30
    Andoh A, Kuzuoka H, Tsujikawa T et al. Multicenter analysis of fecal microbiota profiles in Japanese patients with Crohn's disease. J Gastroenterol 2012; 47:12981307.
  • 31
    Schoepfer AM, Beglinger C, Straumann A et al. Fecal calprotectin correlates more closely with the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's disease (SES-CD) than CRP, blood leukocytes, and the CDAI. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105:162169.
  • 32
    Regueiro M, Kip KE, Schraut W et al. Crohn's disease activity index does not correlate with endoscopic recurrence one year after ileocolonic resection. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17:118126.