Mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-deficiency is associated with an increased susceptibility to pneumococcal infections and other forms of disease. Pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in MBL-deficient patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI). The response to pneumococcal vaccination in MBL-deficient individuals has not yet been studied in detail. An impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharides in MBL-deficient patients might explain the association between MBL deficiency and pneumococcal infections. This study investigates the antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination in MBL-deficient adult patients with RRTI. Furthermore, we investigated whether there was a difference in clinical presentation between MBL-deficient and -sufficient patients with RRTI. Eighteen MBL-deficient and 63 MBL-sufficient adult patients with RRTI were all vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and antibodies to 14 pneumococcal serotypes were measured on a Luminex platform. There were no differences observed in the response to pneumococcal vaccination between MBL-sufficient and -deficient patients. Forty-three MBL-sufficient patients could be classified as responders to pneumococcal vaccination and 20 as low responders, compared to 15 responders and three low responders in the MBL-deficient patients. We found no clear difference in clinical, radiological, lung function and medication parameters between MBL-sufficient and -deficient patients. In conclusion, our study suggests that MBL-deficient adults with RRTI have a response to a pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine comparable with MBL-sufficient patients. Moreover, we did not find a clear clinical role of MBL deficiency in adults with RRTI. As MBL deficiency is associated with an increased susceptibility to pneumococcal infections, pneumococcal vaccination might be protective in MBL-deficient patients with RRTI.