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Fig. S1. Immune activation in CD4+ and CD4 T cell populations from the different study groups. CD3+ T cells were analysed for CD38 surface expression as a marker of activation. (a) CD4+ cells, (b) CD4 cells. Data are presented as dot-plots with each dot representing one patient; n.s. = non-significant. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant.

Fig. S2. Immune activation in different T cell subsets correlated to viral load and expression of DNA sensors. CD3+ T cells were subdivided into the following subsets by flow cytometry: naive T cells (CD45RA+CD27+CCR7+), central memory T cells (CD45RACD27+CCR7+), effector memory T cells (CD45RACD27+CCR7) and terminally differentiated T cells (CD45RA+CD27CCR7). CD38 surface expression levels are correlated with viral load in CD4+ (a) and CD4 (b) T cell subsets, respectively. CD38 surface expression levels are correlated with interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) mRNA expression in the CD4+ (c) and CD4 (d) T cell subsets, respectively. Pearson correlations, P-values and significance levels are shown in Table 2.

Table S1. Overview of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) regimens in HAART responders and immunological non-responders (INRs).

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