Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the therapeutic potential of rebamipide, a gastroprotective agent with a property of reactive oxygen species scavenger, on the development of inflammatory polyarthritis and the pathophysiological mechanisms by which rebamipide might confer anti-arthritic effects in SKG mice, an animal model of RA. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of rebamipide attenuated the severity of clinical and histological arthritis. Rebampide treatment reduced the number of T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17, inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS)+ follicular helper T (Tfh) transitional type (T2) and mature B cells in the spleen, but increased the number of regulatory T (Treg), CD19+ CD1dhigh CD5high, CD19+ CD25high forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ regulatory B (Breg) cells, memory B cells, and transitional type 1 (T1) B cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly decreased populations of FAS+GL-7+ germinal centre B cells and B220− CD138+ plasma cells in the spleens of rebamipide-treated SKG mice compared to controls. Rebamipide decreased germinal centre B cells and reciprocally induced Breg cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Rebamipide-induced Breg cells had more suppressive capacity in relation to T cell proliferation and also inhibited Th17 differentiation from murine CD4+ T cells. Together, these data show that i.p. administration of rebamipide suppresses arthritis severity by inducing Breg and Treg cells and suppressing Tfh and Th17 cells in a murine model of RA.