Persistent presence of ATP4A autoantibodies (ATP4AA) directed towards parietal cells is typical for atrophic body gastritis (ABG), an autoimmune disease associated with type 1 diabetes. We assessed whether Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection might be associated with positivity for ATP4AA in children with type 1 diabetes. Sera were collected from 70 (38♀) type 1 diabetes children [aged 13·2 ± 4·5 years, age at diagnosis 8·8 ± 4·3 years, diabetes duration 4·5 ± 3·8 years, mean HbA1c 7·8 ± 1·6% (62 ± 17·5 mmol/mol)] seen at the regional diabetes clinic in Katowice, Poland. Patients were tested concurrently for Hp infection by means of a 13C urea breath test. ATP4AA were measured using a novel radioimmunoprecipitation assay developed at the Barbara Davies Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado. ATP4AA were present in 21 [30%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 19–41%] and Hp infection was detected in 23 (33%, 95% CI = 22–44%) children. There was no statistically significant association between ATP4AA presence and Hp status. ATP4AA presence was not associated with current age, age at type 1 diabetes diagnosis, diabetes duration or current HbA1c. ATP4AA were more prevalent in females [42% (26–58%)] than males [16% (3–28%)], P = 0·016. ATP4A are found in nearly one-third of children with type 1 diabetes and more common among females. In this cross-sectional analysis, Hp infection was not associated with autoimmunity against parietal cells.