SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    MacDougald OA, Hwang CS, Fan H, Lane MD. Regulated expression of the obese gene product (leptin) in white adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92:90349037.
  • 2
    Zhang F, Basinski MB, Beals JM et al. Crystal structure of the obese protein leptin-E100. Nature 1997; 387:206209.
  • 3
    Garcia-Gonzalez A, Gonzalez-Lopez L, Valera-Gonzalez IC et al. Serum leptin levels in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatol Int 2002; 22:138141.
  • 4
    Xu WD, Zhang M, Zhang YJ, Liu SS, Pan HF, Ye DQ. Association between leptin and systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatol Int 2014; 34:559563.
  • 5
    Wislowska M, Rok M, Stepien K, Kuklo-Kowalska A. Serum leptin in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatol Int 2008; 28:467473.
  • 6
    Vadacca M, Zardi EM, Margiotta D et al. Leptin, adiponectin and vascular stiffness parameters in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Intern Emerg Med 2013; 8:705712.
  • 7
    Bokarewa M, Bokarew D, Hultgren O, Tarkowski A. Leptin consumption in the inflamed joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62:952956.
  • 8
    Elwakkad AS, Said RN, Muhammad SI, Saleh MT, Elhamshary A. Role for leptin and prolactin in human juvenile rheumatic diseases. Pak J Biol Sci 2007; 10:19841989.
  • 9
    Manavathongchai S, Bian A, Rho YH et al. Inflammation and hypertension in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2013; 40:18061811.
  • 10
    Chen CY, Tsai CY, Lee PC, Lee SD. Long-term etanercept therapy favors weight gain and ameliorates cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis patients: roles of gut hormones and leptin. Curr Pharm Des 2013; 19:19561964.
  • 11
    Matarese G, Carrieri PB, Montella S, De Rosa V, La Cava A. Leptin as a metabolic link to multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol 2010; 6:455461.
  • 12
    Rotondi M, Batocchi AP, Coperchini F et al. Severe disability in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis is associated with profound changes in the regulation of leptin secretion. Neuroimmunomodulation 2013; 20:341347.
  • 13
    Rey LK, Wieczorek S, Akkad DA, Linker RA, Chan A, Hoffjan S. Polymorphisms in genes encoding leptin, ghrelin and their receptors in German multiple sclerosis patients. Mol Cell Probes 2011; 25:255259.
  • 14
    Kapoor S. Comorbidities associated with leptin and psoriasis. J Drugs Dermatol 2013; 12:515.
  • 15
    Zhu KJ, Zhang C, Li M, Zhu CY, Shi G, Fan YM. Leptin levels in patients with psoriasis: a meta-analysis. Clin Exp Dermatol 2013; 38:478483.
  • 16
    Aly DG, Abdallah IY, Hanafy NS, Elsaie ML, Hafiz NA. Elevated serum leptin levels in nonobese patients with psoriasis. J Drugs Dermatol 2013; 12:e2529.
  • 17
    Park YJ, Cho CS, Emery P, Kim WU. LDL cholesterolemia as a novel risk factor for radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis: a single-center prospective study. PLOS ONE 2013; 8:e68975.
  • 18
    Muraoka S, Kusunoki N, Takahashi H, Tsuchiya K, Kawai S. Leptin stimulates interleukin-6 production via janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2013; 31:589595.
  • 19
    Hayashi H, Satoi K, Sato-Mito N et al. Nutritional status in relation to adipokines and oxidative stress is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition 2012; 28:11091114.
  • 20
    Kopec-Medrek M, Kotulska A, Widuchowska M, Adamczak M, Wiecek A, Kucharz EJ. Plasma leptin and neuropeptide Y concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab, a TNF-alpha antagonist. Rheumatol Int 2012; 32:33833389.
  • 21
    Hamaguchi K, Itabashi A, Kuroe Y et al. Analysis of adipose tissues and stromal vascular cells in a murine arthritis model. Metabolism 2012; 61:16871695.
  • 22
    Sugioka Y, Tada M, Okano T, Nakamura H, Koike T. Acquired leptin resistance by high-fat feeding reduces inflammation from collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2012; 30:707713.
  • 23
    Olama SM, Senna MK, Elarman M. Synovial/serum leptin ratio in rheumatoid arthritis: the association with activity and erosion. Rheumatol Int 2012; 32:683690.
  • 24
    Kontny E, Plebanczyk M, Lisowska B, Olszewska M, Maldyk P, Maslinski W. Comparison of rheumatoid articular adipose and synovial tissue reactivity to proinflammatory stimuli: contribution to adipocytokine network. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71:262267.
  • 25
    Ferraz-Amaro I, Arce-Franco M, Muniz J et al. Systemic blockade of TNF-alpha does not improve insulin resistance in humans. Horm Metab Res 2011; 43:801808.
  • 26
    Yoshino T, Kusunoki N, Tanaka N et al. Elevated serum levels of resistin, leptin, and adiponectin are associated with C-reactive protein and also other clinical conditions in rheumatoid arthritis. Intern Med 2011; 50:269275.
  • 27
    Engvall IL, Tengstrand B, Brismar K, Hafstrom I. Infliximab therapy increases body fat mass in early rheumatoid arthritis independently of changes in disease activity and levels of leptin and adiponectin: a randomised study over 21 months. Arthritis Res Ther 2010; 12:R197.
  • 28
    Xibille-Friedmann D, Bustos-Bahena C, Hernandez-Gongora S, Burgos-Vargas R, Montiel-Hernandez JL. Two-year follow-up of plasma leptin and other cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2010; 69:930931.
  • 29
    Targonska-Stepniak B, Dryglewska M, Majdan M. Adiponectin and leptin serum concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 2010; 30:731737.
  • 30
    Rho YH, Solus J, Sokka T et al. Adipocytokines are associated with radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60:19061914.
  • 31
    Seven A, Guzel S, Aslan M, Hamuryudan V. Serum and synovial fluid leptin levels and markers of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 2009; 29:743747.
  • 32
    Martin AI, Castillero E, Granado M, Lopez-Menduina M, Villanua MA, Lopez-Calderon A. Adipose tissue loss in adjuvant arthritis is associated with a decrease in lipogenesis, but not with an increase in lipolysis. J Endocrinol 2008; 197:111119.
  • 33
    Hizmetli S, Kisa M, Gokalp N, Bakici MZ. Are plasma and synovial fluid leptin levels correlated with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis? Rheumatol Int 2007; 27:335338.
  • 34
    Hayward MD, Jones BK, Saparov A et al. An extensive phenotypic characterization of the hTNFalpha transgenic mice. BMC Physiol 2007; 7:13.
  • 35
    Caetano-Lopes J, Canhao H, Fonseca JE. Osteoblasts and bone formation. Acta Reumatol Port 2007; 32:103110.
  • 36
    Otero M, Lago R, Gomez R et al. Changes in plasma levels of fat-derived hormones adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65:11981201.
  • 37
    Gunaydin R, Kaya T, Atay A, Olmez N, Hur A, Koseoglu M. Serum leptin levels in rheumatoid arthritis and relationship with disease activity. South Med J 2006; 99:10781083.
  • 38
    Harle P, Sarzi-Puttini P, Cutolo M, Straub RH. No change of serum levels of leptin and adiponectin during anti-tumour necrosis factor antibody treatment with adalimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65:970971.
  • 39
    Popa C, Netea MG, Radstake TR, van Riel PL, Barrera P, van der Meer JW. Markers of inflammation are negatively correlated with serum leptin in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64:11951198.
  • 40
    Anders HJ, Rihl M, Heufelder A, Loch O, Schattenkirchner M. Leptin serum levels are not correlated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Metabolism 1999; 48:745748.
  • 41
    Busso N, So A, Chobaz-Peclat V et al. Leptin signaling deficiency impairs humoral and cellular immune responses and attenuates experimental arthritis. J Immunol 2002; 168:875882.
  • 42
    Madiehe AM, Mitchell TD, Harris RB. Hyperleptinemia and reduced TNF-alpha secretion cause resistance of db/db mice to endotoxin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003; 284:R763770.
  • 43
    Loffreda S, Yang SQ, Lin HZ et al. Leptin regulates proinflammatory immune responses. FASEB J 1998; 12:5765.
  • 44
    Vadacca M, Margiotta DP, Navarini L, Afeltra A. Leptin in immuno-rheumatological diseases. Cell Mol Immunol 2011; 8:203212.
  • 45
    Zarkesh-Esfahani H, Pockley G, Metcalfe RA et al. High-dose leptin activates human leukocytes via receptor expression on monocytes. J Immunol 2001; 167:45934599.
  • 46
    Gruen ML, Hao M, Piston DW, Hasty AH. Leptin requires canonical migratory signaling pathways for induction of monocyte and macrophage chemotaxis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2007; 293:C14811488.
  • 47
    Montecucco F, Bianchi G, Gnerre P, Bertolotto M, Dallegri F, Ottonello L. Induction of neutrophil chemotaxis by leptin: crucial role for p38 and Src kinases. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006; 1069:463471.
  • 48
    Caldefie-Chezet F, Poulin A, Vasson MP. Leptin regulates functional capacities of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Free Radic Res 2003; 37:809814.
  • 49
    Zhao Y, Sun R, You L, Gao C, Tian Z. Expression of leptin receptors and response to leptin stimulation of human natural killer cell lines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003; 300:247252.
  • 50
    Wong CK, Cheung PF, Lam CW. Leptin-mediated cytokine release and migration of eosinophils: implications for immunopathophysiology of allergic inflammation. Eur J Immunol 2007; 37:23372348.
  • 51
    Mattioli B, Straface E, Quaranta MG, Giordani L, Viora M. Leptin promotes differentiation and survival of human dendritic cells and licenses them for Th1 priming. J Immunol 2005; 174:68206828.
  • 52
    Lam QL, Zheng BJ, Jin DY, Cao X, Lu L. Leptin induces CD40 expression through the activation of Akt in murine dendritic cells. J Biol Chem 2007; 282:2758727597.
  • 53
    Al-Hassi HO, Bernardo D, Murugananthan AU et al. A mechanistic role for leptin in human dendritic cell migration: differences between ileum and colon in health and Crohn's disease. Mucosal Immunol 2013; 6:751761.
  • 54
    Taildeman J, Perez-Novo CA, Rottiers I et al. Human mast cells express leptin and leptin receptors. Histochem Cell Biol 2009; 131:703711.
  • 55
    Lord GM, Matarese G, Howard JK, Baker RJ, Bloom SR, Lechler RI. Leptin modulates the T-cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immunosuppression. Nature 1998; 394:897901.
  • 56
    Lam QL, Lu L. Role of leptin in immunity. Cell Mol Immunol 2007; 4:113.
  • 57
    Siegmund B, Lehr HA, Fantuzzi G. Leptin: a pivotal mediator of intestinal inflammation in mice. Gastroenterology 2002; 122:20112025.
  • 58
    Gomez R, Conde J, Scotece M, Gomez-Reino JJ, Lago F, Gualillo O. What's new in our understanding of the role of adipokines in rheumatic diseases? Nat Rev Rheumatol 2011; 7:528536.
  • 59
    De Rosa V, Procaccini C, Cali G et al. A key role of leptin in the control of regulatory T cell proliferation. Immunity 2007; 26:241255.
  • 60
    Agrawal S, Gollapudi S, Su H, Gupta S. Leptin activates human B cells to secrete TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 via JAK2/STAT3 and p38MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. J Clin Immunol 2011; 31:472478.
  • 61
    Sahu A. Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus: emphasis on energy homeostasis and leptin resistance. Front Neuroendocrinol 2003; 24:225253.
  • 62
    Hegyi K, Fulop K, Kovacs K, Toth S, Falus A. Leptin-induced signal transduction pathways. Cell Biol Int 2004; 28:159169.
  • 63
    Myers MG Jr. Leptin receptor signaling and the regulation of mammalian physiology. Recent Prog Horm Res 2004; 59:287304.
  • 64
    White DW, Kuropatwinski KK, Devos R, Baumann H, Tartaglia LA. Leptin receptor (OB-R) signaling. Cytoplasmic domain mutational analysis and evidence for receptor homo-oligomerization. J Biol Chem 1997; 272:40654071.
  • 65
    Soebiyanto RP, Sreenath SN, Qu CK, Loparo KA, Bunting KD. Complex systems biology approach to understanding coordination of JAK-STAT signaling. Biosystems 2007; 90:830842.
  • 66
    Banks AS, Davis SM, Bates SH, Myers MG Jr. Activation of downstream signals by the long form of the leptin receptor. J Biol Chem 2000; 275:1456314572.
  • 67
    Terrell AM, Crisostomo PR, Wairiuko GM, Wang M, Morrell ED, Meldrum DR. Jak/STAT/SOCS signaling circuits and associated cytokine-mediated inflammation and hypertrophy in the heart. Shock 2006; 26:226234.
  • 68
    Mutze J, Roth J, Gerstberger R, Hubschle T. Nuclear translocation of the transcription factor STAT5 in the rat brain after systemic leptin administration. Neurosci Lett 2007; 417:286291.
  • 69
    Gong Y, Ishida-Takahashi R, Villanueva EC, Fingar DC, Munzberg H, Myers MG, Jr. The long form of the leptin receptor regulates STAT5 and ribosomal protein S6 via alternate mechanisms. J Biol Chem 2007; 282:3101931027.
  • 70
    van den Brink GR, O'Toole T, Hardwick JC et al. Leptin signaling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, activation of p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and p70 S6 kinase. Mol Cell Biol Res Commun 2000; 4:144150.
  • 71
    Bjorbaek C, Buchholz RM, Davis SM et al. Divergent roles of SHP-2 in ERK activation by leptin receptors. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:47474755.
  • 72
    Li C, Friedman JM. Leptin receptor activation of SH2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 modulates Ob receptor signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96:96779682.
  • 73
    Bjorbak C, Lavery HJ, Bates SH et al. SOCS3 mediates feedback inhibition of the leptin receptor via Tyr985. J Biol Chem 2000; 275:4064940657.
  • 74
    Mansour E, Pereira FG, Araujo EP et al. Leptin inhibits apoptosis in thymus through a Janus kinase-2-independent, insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent pathway. Endocrinology 2006; 147:54705479.
  • 75
    Kitamura T, Feng Y, Kitamura YI et al. Forkhead protein FoxO1 mediates Agrp-dependent effects of leptin on food intake. Nat Med 2006; 12:534540.
  • 76
    Elbatarny HS, Maurice DH. Leptin-mediated activation of human platelets: involvement of a leptin receptor and phosphodiesterase 3A-containing cellular signaling complex. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005; 289:E695702.
  • 77
    Sanchez-Margalet V, Martin-Romero C, Santos-Alvarez J, Goberna R, Najib S, Gonzalez-Yanes C. Role of leptin as an immunomodulator of blood mononuclear cells: mechanisms of action. Clin Exp Immunol 2003; 133:1119.
  • 78
    Lam QL, Liu S, Cao X, Lu L. Involvement of leptin signaling in the survival and maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 2006; 36:31183130.
  • 79
    Su H, Jiang L, Carter-Su C, Rui L. Glucose enhances leptin signaling through modulation of AMPK activity. PLOS ONE 2012; 7:e31636.
  • 80
    Claret M, Smith MA, Batterham RL et al. AMPK is essential for energy homeostasis regulation and glucose sensing by POMC and AgRP neurons. J Clin Invest 2007; 117:23252336.
  • 81
    Morris DL, Rui L. Recent advances in understanding leptin signaling and leptin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2009; 297:E12471259.
  • 82
    Dempsey EC, Newton AC, Mochly-Rosen D et al. Protein kinase C isozymes and the regulation of diverse cell responses. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2000; 279:L429438.
  • 83
    Attoub S, Noe V, Pirola L et al. Leptin promotes invasiveness of kidney and colonic epithelial cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase-, rho-, and rac-dependent signaling pathways. FASEB J 2000; 14:23292338.
  • 84
    Mackey-Lawrence NM, Petri WA Jr. Leptin and mucosal immunity. Mucosal Immunol 2012; 5:472479.
  • 85
    Faggioni R, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C. Leptin regulation of the immune response and the immunodeficiency of malnutrition. FASEB J 2001; 15:25652571.
  • 86
    Wrann CD, Laue T, Hubner L et al. Short-term and long-term leptin exposure differentially affect human natural killer cell immune functions. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2012; 302:E108116.
  • 87
    Malendowicz LK, Gorska T, Tortorella C et al. Acute in vivo effects of leptin and leptin fragments on corticosteroid hormone secretion and entero-insular axis in the rat. Int J Mol Med 2004; 13:829834.
  • 88
    Smith JT, Waddell BJ. Leptin receptor expression in the rat placenta: changes in ob-ra, ob-rb, and ob-re with gestational age and suppression by glucocorticoids. Biol Reprod 2002; 67:12041210.
  • 89
    Barr VA, Lane K, Taylor SI. Subcellular localization and internalization of the four human leptin receptor isoforms. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:2141621424.
  • 90
    Sweeney G. Leptin signalling. Cell Signal 2002; 14:655663.
  • 91
    Otvos L Jr, Shao WH, Vanniasinghe AS et al. Toward understanding the role of leptin and leptin receptor antagonism in preclinical models of rheumatoid arthritis. Peptides 2011; 32:15671574.
  • 92
    Roth B, Manjer J, Ohlsson B. Microscopic colitis is associated with several concomitant diseases. Drug Target Insights 2013; 7:1925.
  • 93
    Mohammad-Shahi M, Haidari F, Rashidi B, Saei AA, Mahboob S, Rashidi MR. Comparison of the effects of genistein and daidzein with dexamethasone and soy protein on rheumatoid arthritis in rats. BioImpacts 2011; 1:161170.
  • 94
    Sandell LJ. Obesity and osteoarthritis: is leptin the link? Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60:28582860.
  • 95
    Targonska-Stepniak B, Majdan M, Dryglewska M. Leptin serum levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients: relation to disease duration and activity. Rheumatol Int 2008; 28:585591.
  • 96
    Hultgren OH, Tarkowski A. Leptin in septic arthritis: decreased levels during infection and amelioration of disease activity upon its administration. Arthritis Res 2001; 3:389394.
  • 97
    Senolt L, Housa D, Vernerova Z et al. Resistin in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue, synovial fluid and serum. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66:458463.
  • 98
    Gabay C, Dreyer M, Pellegrinelli N, Chicheportiche R, Meier CA. Leptin directly induces the secretion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in human monocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:783791.
  • 99
    Cohen S, Hurd E, Cush J et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with anakinra, a recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, in combination with methotrexate: results of a twenty-four-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46:614624.
  • 100
    Toussirot E, Nguyen NU, Dumoulin G, Aubin F, Cedoz JP, Wendling D. Relationship between growth hormone–IGF-I–IGFBP-3 axis and serum leptin levels with bone mass and body composition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 2005; 44:120125.
  • 101
    Otero M, Lago R, Lago F, Reino JJ, Gualillo O. Signalling pathway involved in nitric oxide synthase type II activation in chondrocytes: synergistic effect of leptin with interleukin-1. Arthritis Res Ther 2005; 7:R581591.
  • 102
    Otero M, Gomez Reino JJ, Gualillo O. Synergistic induction of nitric oxide synthase type II: in vitro effect of leptin and interferon-gamma in human chondrocytes and ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48:404409.
  • 103
    Ouchi N, Walsh K. Adiponectin as an anti-inflammatory factor. Clin Chim Acta 2007; 380:2430.
  • 104
    Figenschau Y, Knutsen G, Shahazeydi S, Johansen O, Sveinbjornsson B. Human articular chondrocytes express functional leptin receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001; 287:190197.
  • 105
    Giles JT, van der Heijde DM, Bathon JM. Association of circulating adiponectin levels with progression of radiographic joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2011; 70:15621568.
  • 106
    Giles JT, Allison M, Bingham CO, 3rd, Scott WM, Jr., Bathon JM. Adiponectin is a mediator of the inverse association of adiposity with radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61:12481256.
  • 107
    Meyer M, Sellam J, Fellahi S et al. Serum level of adiponectin is a surrogate independent biomarker of radiographic disease progression in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the ESPOIR cohort. Arthritis Res Ther 2013; 15:R210.
  • 108
    Otero M, Lago R, Lago F et al. Leptin, from fat to inflammation: old questions and new insights. FEBS Lett 2005; 579:295301.
  • 109
    Dumond H, Presle N, Terlain B et al. Evidence for a key role of leptin in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48:31183129.
  • 110
    Hui W, Litherland GJ, Elias MS et al. Leptin produced by joint white adipose tissue induces cartilage degradation via upregulation and activation of matrix metalloproteinases. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71:455462.
  • 111
    Conde J, Scotece M, Lopez V et al. Adiponectin and leptin induce VCAM-1 expression in human and murine chondrocytes. PLOS ONE 2012; 7:e52533.
  • 112
    Becer E, Mehmetcik G, Bareke H, Serakinci N. Association of leptin receptor gene Q223R polymorphism on lipid profiles in comparison study between obese and non-obese subjects. Gene 2013; 529:1620.
  • 113
    Parveen F, Agrawal S. A study of forty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms among recurrent miscarriage using classification and regression tree analysis. Am J Reprod Immunol 2013; 70:529537.
  • 114
    Lee HJ, Kim H, Ku SY, Choi YM, Kim JH, Kim JG. Association between polymorphisms in leptin, leptin receptor, and beta-adrenergic receptor genes and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women. Menopause 2014; 21:6773.
  • 115
    Fourati M, Mnif M, Kharrat N et al. Association between Leptin gene polymorphisms and plasma leptin level in three consanguineous families with obesity. Gene 2013; 527:7581.
  • 116
    Kimber W, Peelman F, Prieur X et al. Functional characterization of naturally occurring pathogenic mutations in the human leptin receptor. Endocrinology 2008; 149:60436052.
  • 117
    Ma XJ, Guo HH, Hao SW et al. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in leptin receptor gene with knee osteoarthritis in the Ningxia Hui population. Yi chuan 2013; 35:359364.
  • 118
    Yiannakouris N, Yannakoulia M, Melistas L, Chan JL, Klimis-Zacas D, Mantzoros CS. The Q223R polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene is significantly associated with obesity and predicts a small percentage of body weight and body composition variability. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:44344439.
  • 119
    Koh JM, Kim DJ, Hong JS et al. Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms Pvu II and Xba I influence association between leptin receptor gene polymorphism (Gln223Arg) and bone mineral density in young men. Eur J Endocrinol 2002; 147:777783.
  • 120
    Garcia-Bermudez M, Gonzalez-Juanatey C, Rodriguez-Rodriguez L et al. Lack of association between LEP rs2167270 (19 G>A) polymorphism and disease susceptibility and cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2011; 29:293298.
  • 121
    Skibola CF, Holly EA, Forrest MS et al. Body mass index, leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13:779786.
  • 122
    Franek E, Nowak J, Safranow K et al. 2548)A leptin gene polymorphism in obese subjects is associated with serum leptin concentration and bone mass. Pol Arch Med Wewn 2010; 120:175180.
  • 123
    Klaasen R, Herenius MM, Wijbrandts CA et al. Treatment-specific changes in circulating adipocytokines: a comparison between tumour necrosis factor blockade and glucocorticoid treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71:15101516.
  • 124
    Zhang HH, Kumar S, Barnett AH, Eggo MC. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha exerts dual effects on human adipose leptin synthesis and release. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2000; 159:7988.
  • 125
    Derdemezis CS, Filippatos TD, Voulgari PV, Tselepis AD, Drosos AA, Kiortsis DN. Effects of a 6-month infliximab treatment on plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2009; 23:595600.
  • 126
    Gonzalez-Gay MA, Garcia-Unzueta MT, Berja A et al. Anti-TNF-alpha therapy does not modulate leptin in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2009; 27:222228.
  • 127
    Sattar N, McCarey DW, Capell H, McInnes IB. Explaining how ‘high-grade’ systemic inflammation accelerates vascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis. Circulation 2003; 108:29572963.
  • 128
    Dessein PH, Norton GR, Woodiwiss AJ, Tsang L, Solomon A. Age impacts on the independent relationships of leptin with cardiometabolic risk and surrogate markers of enhanced early atherogenesis in black and white patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study. Rheumatol Int 2014; 34:329339.
  • 129
    Kang Y, Park HJ, Kang MI et al. Adipokines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2013; 15:R194.
  • 130
    Dessein PH, Solomon A. Towards the elucidation of the true impact of adipocytokines on cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2013; 15:127.
  • 131
    La Cava A, Matarese G. The weight of leptin in immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 2004; 4:371379.
  • 132
    Gertler A. Development of leptin antagonists and their potential use in experimental biology and medicine. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2006; 17:372378.
  • 133
    Peelman F, Van Beneden K, Zabeau L et al. Mapping of the leptin binding sites and design of a leptin antagonist. J Biol Chem 2004; 279:4103841046.
  • 134
    Babaei A, Zarkesh-Esfahani SH, Bahrami E, Ross RJ. Restricted leptin antagonism as a therapeutic approach to treatment of autoimmune diseases. Hormones 2011; 10:1626.
  • 135
    Fazeli M, Zarkesh-Esfahani H, Wu Z et al. Identification of a monoclonal antibody against the leptin receptor that acts as an antagonist and blocks human monocyte and T cell activation. J Immunol Methods 2006; 312:190200.
  • 136
    Fernandez-Riejos P, Najib S, Santos-Alvarez J et al. Role of leptin in the activation of immune cells. Mediat Inflamm 2010; 2010:568343.
  • 137
    Matarese G, De Rosa V, La Cava A. Regulatory CD4 T cells: sensing the environment. Trends Immunol 2008; 29:1217.
  • 138
    Ducy P, Amling M, Takeda S et al. Leptin inhibits bone formation through a hypothalamic relay: a central control of bone mass. Cell 2000; 100:197207.
  • 139
    Reseland JE, Syversen U, Bakke I et al. Leptin is expressed in and secreted from primary cultures of human osteoblasts and promotes bone mineralization. J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16:14261433.
  • 140
    Thomas T, Gori F, Khosla S, Jensen MD, Burguera B, Riggs BL. Leptin acts on human marrow stromal cells to enhance differentiation to osteoblasts and to inhibit differentiation to adipocytes. Endocrinology 1999; 140:16301638.
  • 141
    Fukuda H, Iritani N. Transcriptional regulation of leptin gene promoter in rat. FEBS Lett 1999; 455:165169.
  • 142
    McLaughlin F, Mackintosh J, Hayes BP et al. Glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia in the mouse as assessed by histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, and biochemical markers. Bone 2002; 30:924930.