Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in Turner syndrome


Correspondence: Iris Gutmark-Little, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Tel.: +1-513-636-4744; E-mail:


Girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS) have a highly increased morbidity as the result of cardiovascular disease, both congenital and acquired. Increased clinical use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with TS over recent years has allowed for characterization of disease not always possible with standard imaging modalities, such as echocardiography (echo). In this review, we discuss the current literature regarding CMR in patients with TS and guidelines for its use.