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Interferon-gamma ELISPOT detecting reactivity of T cells to TSH receptor peptides in Graves' disease

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Summary

Objective

While thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) is recognized as the main autoantigen in Graves' disease (GD), the actual antigen specificity of T cells that infiltrate the thyroid and the orbit is unknown. Identifying T cell responses to TSHR peptides has been difficult in the past due to the low frequency of autoreactive T cells and to the diversity of the putative epitopes identified by proliferation assays.

Methods

We used the interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay to identify T cell reactivity to TSHR peptides in patients with GD. Peripheral blood T cells were exposed in vitro to four pools of 10 overlapping TSHR peptides.

Results

T cells from 11 of 31 (35%) patients with GD and 1 of 22 (4%) healthy controls reacted to at least one peptide pool (= 0·009). Mean time since diagnosis was 3·2 years in responder patients and 5·6 years in nonresponders (= 0·07). In two patients, T cell reactivity was observed shortly after radioiodine treatment and not thereafter.

Conclusions

Our findings demonstrate that the ELISPOT assay is effective to test T cell reactivity in patients with GD and that patients with GD have significantly more interferon-gamma responses towards TSHR peptides than controls. The data suggest that screening for T cell responses in patients with GD might be more efficient in recent-onset disease or after radioiodine treatment.

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