• 1
    De Lellis, R.A., Lloyd, R.V., Heitz, P.U. et al. (2004) World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Endocrine Organs. IARC Press, Lyon.
  • 2
    Pacak, K., Keiser, H. & Eisenhofer, G. (2005) Pheochromocytoma. In: L.J. De Groot, J.L. Jameson eds. Textbook of Endocrinology. Elsevier Saunders Inc, Philadelphia, 25012534.
  • 3
    Chrisoulidou, A., Kaltsas, G., Ilias, I. et al. (2007) The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocrine Related Cancer, 14, 569585.
  • 4
    Granger, J.K. & Houn, H.Y. (1990) Head and neck paragangliomas: a clinicopathologic study with DNA flow cytometric analysis. Southern Medical Journal, 83, 14071412.
  • 5
    Linnoila, R.I., Keiser, H.R., Steinberg, S.M. et al. (1990) Histopathology of benign versus malignant sympathoadrenal paragangliomas: clinicopathologic study of 120 cases including unusual histologic features. Human Pathology, 21, 11681180.
  • 6
    Scholz, T., Schulz, C., Klose, S. et al. (2007) Diagnostic management of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, 115, 155159.
  • 7
    Fitzgerald, P.A., Goldsby, R.E., Huberty, J.P. et al. (2006) Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a phase II study of therapy with high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1073, 465490.
  • 8
    Goldstein, R.E., O'Neill, J.A. Jr, Holcomb, G.W. III et al. (1999) Clinical experience over 48 years with pheochromocytoma. Annals of Surgery, 229, 755764.
  • 9
    Sisson, J.C., Shapiro, B., Beierwaltes, W.H. et al. (1984) Radiopharmaceutical treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 25, 197206.
  • 10
    Gulenchyn, K.Y., Yao, X., Asa, S.L. et al. (2012) Radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review. Clinical Oncology (Royal College of Radiologists), 24, 294308.
  • 11
    Eisenhauer, E.A., Therasse, P., Bogaerts, J. et al. (2009) New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). European Journal of Cancer, 45, 228247.
  • 12
    Hamza, T.H., van Houwelingen, H.C. & Stijnen, T. (2008) The binomial distribution of meta-analysis was preferred to model within-study variability. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 61, 4151.
  • 13
    DerSimonian, R. & Laird, N. (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Controlled Clinical Trials, 7, 177188.
  • 14
    Chang, B.H., Waternaux, C. & Lipsitz, S. (2001) Meta-analysis of binary data: which within study variance estimate to use? Statistics in Medicine, 20, 19471956.
  • 15
    Sweeting, M.J., Sutton, A.J. & Lambert, P.C. (2004) What to add to nothing? Use and avoidance of continuity corrections in meta-analysis of sparse data. Statistics in Medicine, 23, 13511375.
  • 16
    Bomanji, J., Britton, K.E., Ur, E. et al. (1993) Treatment of malignant phaeochromocytoma, paraganglioma and carcinoid tumours with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 14, 856861.
  • 17
    Krempf, M., Lumbroso, J., Mornex, R. et al. (1991) Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma with [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine: a French multicenter study. Journal of Nuclear Biology and Medicine, 35, 284287.
  • 18
    Lumbroso, J., Schlumberger, M., Tenenbaum, F. et al. (1991) [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy in 20 patients with malignant pheochromocytoma. Journal of Nuclear Biology and Medicine, 35, 288291.
  • 19
    Mornex, R., Peyrin, L. & Badet, C. (1992) Pheochromocytoma. Study of a personal series of 85 cases. Bulletin de l'Acadamie Nationale de Medicine, 176, 545553.
  • 20
    Rose, B., Matthay, K.K., Price, D. et al. (2003) High-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for 12 patients with malignant pheochromocytoma. Cancer, 98, 239248.
  • 21
    Shapiro, B., Sisson, J.C. & Eyre, P. (1985) 131I-MIBG–a new agent in diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma. Cardiology, 72(Suppl 1), 137142.
  • 22
    Sisson, J., Shapiro, B., Beierwaltes, W.H. et al. (1983) Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma with a new radiopharmaceutical. Transactions of the Associations of American Physicians, 96, 209217.
  • 23
    Sisson, J.C. & Wieland, D.M. (1986) Radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine: pharmacology and clinical studies. American Journal of Physiologic Imaging, 1, 96103.
  • 24
    Thompson, N.W., Allo, M.D., Shapiro, B. et al. (1984) Extra-adrenal and metastatic pheochromocytoma: the role of 131I meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I MIBG) in localization and management. World Journal of Surgery, 8, 605611.
  • 25
    Bomanji, J.B., Wong, W., Gaze, M.N. et al. (2003) Treatment of neuroendocrine tumours in adults with 131I-MIBG therapy. Clinical Oncology (Royal College of Radiologists), 15, 193198.
  • 26
    Castellani, M.R., Seghezzi, S., Chiesa, C. et al. (2010) (131)I-MIBG treatment of pheochromocytoma: low versus intermediate activity regimens of therapy. The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 54, 100113.
  • 27
    Charbonnel, B., Chatal, J.F., Brendel, A.J. et al. (1988) Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma by 131-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. Annales d′Endocrinologie (Paris), 49, 344347.
  • 28
    Fishbein, L., Bonner, L., Torigian, D.A. et al. (2012) External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and non-head and -neck paraganglioma: combination with 131I-MIBG. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 44, 405410.
  • 29
    Gedik, G.K., Hoefnagel, C.A., Bais, E. et al. (2008) 131I-MIBG therapy in metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 35, 725733.
  • 30
    Gonias, S., Goldsby, R., Matthay, K.K. et al. (2009) Phase II study of high-dose [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27, 41624168.
  • 31
    Hartley, A., Spooner, D. & Brunt, A.M. (2001) Management of malignant phaeochromocytoma: a retrospective review of the use of MIBG and chemotherapy in the West Midlands. Clinical Oncology (Royal College of Radiologists), 13, 361366.
  • 32
    Krempf, M., Lumbroso, J., Mornex, R. et al. (1991) Use of m-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine in the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 72, 455461.
  • 33
    Lewington, V.J., Zivanovic, M.A., Tristam, M. et al. (1991) Radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine targeted radiotherapy for malignant phaeochromocytoma. Journal of Nuclear Biology and Medicine, 35, 280283.
  • 34
    Mukherjee, J.J., Kaltsas, G.A., Islam, N. et al. (2001) Treatment of metastatic carcinoid tumours, phaeochromocytoma, paraganglioma and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid with (131)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine [(131)I-mIBG]. Clinical Endocrinology, 55, 4760.
  • 35
    Rachh, S.H., Abhyankar, S. & Basu, S. (2011) [(1)(3)(1)I]Metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy in neural crest tumors: varying outcome in different histopathologies. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 32, 12011210.
  • 36
    Safford, S.D., Coleman, R.E., Gockerman, J.P. et al. (2003) Iodine -131 metaiodobenzylguanidine is an effective treatment for malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Surgery, 134, 956962.
  • 37
    Sakahara, H., Endo, K., Saga, T. et al. (1994) 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for malignant pheochromocytoma. Annals of Nuclear Medicine, 8, 133137.
  • 38
    Schlumberger, M., Gicquel, C., Lumbroso, J. et al. (1992) Malignant pheochromocytoma: clinical, biological, histologic and therapeutic data in a series of 20 patients with distant metastases. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 15, 631642.
  • 39
    Shilkrut, M., Bar-Deroma, R., Bar-Sela, G. et al. (2010) Low-dose iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: single center experience. American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33, 7982.
  • 40
    Szalat, A., Fraenkel, M., Doviner, V. et al. (2011) Malignant pheochromocytoma: predictive factors of malignancy and clinical course in 16 patients at a single tertiary medical center. Endocrine, 39, 160166.
  • 41
    Dekkers, O.M., Egger, M., Altman, D.G. et al. (2012) Distinguishing case series from cohort studies. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156, 3740.
  • 42
    Amar, L., Bertherat, J., Baudin, E. et al. (2005) Genetic testing in pheochromocytoma or functional paraganglioma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 88128818.
  • 43
    Badenhop, R.F., Jansen, J.C., Fagan, P.A. et al. (2004) The prevalence of SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD mutations in patients with head and neck paraganglioma and association of mutations with clinical features. Journal of Medical Genetics, 41, e99.
  • 44
    van Hulsteijn, L.T., Dekkers, O.M., Hes, F.J. et al. (2012) Risk of malignant paraganglioma in SDHB-mutation and SDHD-mutation carriers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 49, 768776.
  • 45
    Adjalle, R., Plouin, P.F., Pacak, K. et al. (2009) Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 41, 687696.
  • 46
    Reubi, J.C. (2003) Peptide receptors as molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Endocrine Reviews, 24, 389427.
  • 47
    Mundschenk, J., Unger, N., Schulz, S. et al. (2003) Somatostatin receptor subtypes in human pheochromocytoma: subcellular expression pattern and functional relevance for octreotide scintigraphy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88, 51505157.
  • 48
    van Essen, E.M., Krenning, E.P., Kooij, P.P. et al. (2006) Effects of therapy with [177Lu-DOTA0, Tyr3]octreotate in patients with paraganglioma, meningioma, small cell lung carcinoma, and melanoma. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 47, 15991606.
  • 49
    Imhof, A., Brunner, P., Marincek, N. et al. (2011) Response, survival, and long-term toxicity after therapy with the radiolabeled somatostatin analogue [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized neuroendocrine cancers. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29, 24162423.
  • 50
    Ilias, I., Chen, C.C., Carrasquillo, J.A. et al. (2008) Comparison of 6-18F-fluorodopamine PET with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and 111in-pentetreotide scintigraphy in localization of nonmetastatic and metastatic pheochromocytoma. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 49, 16131619.
  • 51
    van der Harst, E., de Herder, W.W., Bruining, H.A. et al. (2001) [(123)I]metaiodobenzylguanidine and [(111)In]octreotide uptake in begnign and malignant pheochromocytomas. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 685693.
  • 52
    Huang, H., Abraham, J., Hung, E. et al. (2008) Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine: recommendation from a 22-year follow-up of 18 patients. Cancer, 113, 20202028.
  • 53
    Nomura, K., Kimura, H., Shimizu, S. et al. (2009) Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94, 28502856.
  • 54
    Sze, W.C., Grossman, A.B., Goddard, I. et al. (2013) Sequelae and survivorship in patients treated with (131)I-MIBG therapy. British Journal of Cancer, 109, 565572.
  • 55
    Joshua, A.M., Ezzat, S., Asa, S.L. et al. (2009) Rationale and evidence for sunitinib in the treatment of malignant paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94, 59.
  • 56
    Jimenez, C., Cabanillas, M.E., Santarpia, L. et al. (2009) Use of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease: targeting angiogenic factors in pheochromocytoma and other von Hippel-Lindau disease-related tumors. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94, 386391.
  • 57
    Miller, A.B., Hoogstraten, B., Staquet, M. et al. (1981) Reporting results of cancer treatment. Cancer, 47, 207214.
  • 58
    Therasse, P., Arbuck, S.G., Eisenhauer, E.A. et al. (2000) New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of the United States, National Cancer Institute of Canada. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92, 205216.
  • 59
    Oken, M.M., Creech, R.H., Tormey, D.C. et al. (1982) Toxicity and response criteria of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 5, 649655.
  • 60
    Brodeur, G.M., Pritchard, J., Berthold, F. et al. (1993) Revisions of the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 11, 14661477.