The development of the Tuebingen Cushing's disease quality of life inventory (Tuebingen CD-25). Part II: normative data from 1784 healthy people

Authors

  • Monika Milian,

  • Philipp Teufel,

  • Juergen Honegger,

  • Baptist Gallwitz,

  • Guenter Schnauder,

  • Tsambika Psaras

Errata

This article corrects:

  1. The development of the Tuebingen Cushing’s disease quality of life inventory (Tuebingen CD-25). Part II: normative data from 1784 healthy people Volume 76, Issue 6, 861–867, Article first published online: 23 April 2012

In Volume 76 Issue 6 of Clinical Endocrinology, the amount of impaired patients reported was incorrect in comparison with the general population. The affected portions of the article should read as follows:

The degree of HRQoL impairment in Cushing's disease patients

The Tuebingen CD-25 scores (means, standard deviations) as well as the 95·0% and 84·0% thresholds for the respective subdomains from the healthy controls are listed in Table 2 for female and Table 3 for male patients and the respective age groups. Figure 1 demonstrates the percentages of patients who are slightly or severely impaired in their HRQoL compared with the healthy controls. A slight impairment was found in 14·3% of the patients concerning depressive symptoms, 20·6% sexual activity, 15·9% environment, 25·4% eating behaviour, 23·8% bodily restrictions, 14·3% cognitive functions and 15·9% regarding the overall score of the Tuebingen CD-25. Forty-six per cent of the patients reported severe impairment in the Depression scale, 41·3% in the Sexual Activity scale, 49·2% concerning their Environment, 39·7% in the Eating Behavior scale, 52·4% regarding Bodily Restrictions and 65·1% in the Cognition scale. Sixty-six per cent of the Cushing's disease patients presented with severe impairment in the Total Score of the Tuebingen CD-25. Overall, only 17·5% of the CD patients had HRQoL scores who were similar to those of the healthy population.

Table 2. Means, standard deviations and cut-off scores [95% and 84% threshold] of the Tuebingen CD-25 for the female healthy control group
GroupDepressionSexual activityEnvironmentEating behaviorBodily restrictionsCognitionTuebingen CD-25 total score
  1. Tuebingen CD-25: Tuebingen Cushing's disease quality of life inventory.

Female 15–20 years (n = 124)22·022·223·426·010·16·920·7
(SD)(15·1)(20·5)(17·1)(21·0)(12·0)(12·5)(13·2)
84% level37·543·837·550·016·712·534·0
95% level53·168·857·367·233·337·549·3
Female 21–30 years (n = 852)22·522·523·121·810·78·320·0
(SD)(15·0)(17·0)(15·1)(16·5)(12·1)(12·9)(11·4)
84% level37·537·537·537·525·012·531·0
95% level50·056·350·050·033·337·541·4
Female 31–40 years (n = 94)21·820·122·719·413·311·619·5
(SD)(13·7)(14·9)(13·3)(16·7)(12·8)(14·9)(10·6)
84% level33·331·332·537·525·025·027·0
95% level51·051·754·251·641·750·045·0
Female 41–50 years (n = 52)17·720·820·417·211·19·617·3
(SD)(13·0)(19·6)(15·7)(17·3)(9·4)(13·0)(11·7)
84% level29·237·533·331·321·025·027·0
95% level44·666·947·354·433·337·538·4
Female 51–60 years (n = 40)21·321·422·416·715·89·119·2
(SD)(14·4)(19·3)(13·1)(15·8)(14·0)(13·0)(11·1)
84% level35·237·539·337·533·325·031·0
95% level54·250·041·750·049·648·843·8
Female 61–70 years (n = 38)18·319·222·415·614·712·218·1
(SD)(12·6)(16·5)(17·8)(16·4)(13·6)(13·5)(11·3)
84% level33·337·545·837·531·325·027·0
95% level42·156·354·450·050·038·140·2
Female 70+ years (n = 10)19·216·330·818·127·517·522·2
(SD)(19·4)(13·6)(23·5)(20·3)(20·4)(12·1)(16·9)
84% level49·831·056·843·560·328·047·8
95% level62·550·091·762·566·737·560·0
Female all (n = 1210)22·022·223·021·511·38·719·9
(SD)(14·8)(17·4)(15·3)(17·2)(12·4)(13·1)(11·6)
84% level37·537·537·537·525·025·031·0
95% level50·056·350·056·333·337·542·0
Table 3. Means, standard deviations and cut-off scores [95% and 84% threshold] of the Tuebingen CD-25 for the male healthy control group
GroupDepressionSexual activityEnvironmentEating behaviorBodily restrictionsCognitionTuebingen CD-25 total score
  1. Tuebingen CD–25: Tuebingen Cushing's disease quality of life inventory.

Male 15–20 years (n = 77)22·622·927·417·06·99·320·0
(SD)(16·7)(17·5)(15·4)(14·2)(11·1)(13·2)(11·5)
84% level37·540·845·828·312·719·030·6
95% level54·256·354·650·033·338·843·3
Male 21–30 years (n = 322)20·618·624·616·26·07·517·7
(SD)(14·9)(13·5)(14·6)(14·0)(8·7)(11·4)(10·1)
84% level33·331·337·531·316·712·526·0
95% level45·843·850·043·825·037·538·0
Male 31–40 years (n = 73)21·219·322·713·76·512·017·5
(SD)(14·5)(13·2)(14·6)(12·3)(8·6)(16·5)(10·6)
84% level37·531·337·525·016·725·029·0
95% level50·043·850·037·516·750·037·3
Male 41–50 years (n = 26)25·621·628·718·87·48·221·0
(SD)(13·2)(13·1)(15·6)(17·0)(7·9)(11·1)(10·5)
84% level40·339·845·831·316·712·529·7
95% level50·043·852·762·525·037·544·0
Male 51–60 years (n = 26)20·420·927·112·36·14·317·8
(SD)(15·9)(18·1)(19·0)(11·5)(9·3)(7·9)(11·8)
84% level43·250·055·725·022·312·534·4
95% level51·350·062·537·525·025·038·7
Male 61–70 years (n = 31)16·822·221·112·19·415·717·0
(SD)(13·8)(18·1)(13·9)(15·9)(14·7)(17·7)(11·9)
84% level32·836·833·330·524·037·528·8
95% level47·568·853·351·350·055·049·4
Male 70+ years (n = 19)16·021·122·110·522·421·718·6
(SD)(11·0)(11·8)(12·0)(12·5)(17·4)(19·0)(8·6)
84% level32·531·337·523·840·037·518·6
95% level33·350·041·737·566·775·032·0
Male all (n = 574)20·819·824·815·27·09·118·2
(SD)(15·0)(14·5)(14·9)(14·0)(10·2)(13·3)(10·5)
84% level37·531·341·731·316·712·527·0
95% level50·050·050·043·825·037·538·3
Figure 1.

Rate of patients [in%] presenting impairment compared to HC in the respective domains of the Tuebingen CD-25 related to (a) all CD patients, (b) female CD patients and (c) male CD patients.

Impairment was found in the same frequency in all scales of the Tuebingen CD-25 [χ2 (5) = 8·96, P = 0·111], pointing to the fact that all HRQoL domains are impaired to a similar degree.

Gender differences concerning HRQoL in Cushing's disease patients

After allocation of each CD patient in the categories not impaired and impaired, we aimed to examine gender differences. We found highly significant gender differences concerning depressive symptoms [χ2 (1) = 14·6, P < 0·001], environment [χ2 (1) = 8·4, P < 0·01], eating behaviour (χ2 [1] = 4·8, P < 0·05), bodily restrictions [χ2 (1) = 6·9, P < 0·01] and cognition [χ2 (1) = 5·0, P < 0·05], female patients reporting impairment by far more frequently than male patients (Fig. 1). No significant gender differences in the degree of impairment could be observed in the HRQoL domains Sexual Activity (P > 0·05).

Tables 2 and 3 as well as Fig. 1 were also affected by incorrect data, and the correct versions are as follows:

The authors apologise for the errors.

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