• Bardet–Biedl syndrome;
  • ciliopathy;
  • LZTFL1 gene;
  • mesoaxial polydactyly

Ciliopathies are heterogeneous disorders sharing different clinical signs due to a defect at the level of the primary cilia/centrosome complex. Postaxial polydactyly is frequently reported in ciliopathies, especially in Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS). Clinical features and genetic results observed in a pair of dizygotic twins with BBS are reported. The following manifestations were present: retinitis pigmentosa, bilateral insertional polydactyly, cognitive impairment and renal dysfunction. X-rays of the hands confirmed the presence of a 4th mesoaxial extra-digit with Y-shaped metacarpal bones. The sequencing of LZTFL1 identified a missense mutation (NM_020347.2: p.Leu87Pro; c.260T>C) and a nonsense mutation (p.Glu260*; c.778G>T), establishing a compound heterozygous status for the twins. A major decrease of LZTFL1 transcript and protein was observed in the patient's fibroblasts. This is the second report of LZTFL1 mutations in BBS patients confirming LZTFL1 as a BBS gene. Interestingly, the only two families reported in literature thus far with LZTFL1 mutations have in common mesoaxial polydactyly, a very uncommon feature for BBS. This special subtype of polydactyly in BBS patients is easily identified on clinical examination and prompts for priority sequencing of LZTFL1 (BBS17).