Whole-genome copy number variation analysis in anophthalmia and microphthalmia

Authors

  • KF Schilter,

    1. Department of Pediatrics and Children's Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    2. Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
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    • The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  • LM Reis,

    1. Department of Pediatrics and Children's Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
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    • The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  • A Schneider,

    1. Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA
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  • TM Bardakjian,

    1. Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA
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  • O Abdul-Rahman,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA
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  • BA Kozel,

    1. Division of Genetics and Genomic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
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  • HH Zimmerman,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA
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  • U Broeckel,

    1. Department of Pediatrics and Children's Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
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  • EV Semina

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Pediatrics and Children's Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    2. Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    • Corresponding author: Elena V. Semina, C3520, Translational and Biomedical Research Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226-0509, USA.

      Tel.: +1 414 955 4996;

      fax: +1 414 955 6329;

      e-mail: esemina@mcw.edu

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  • These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) represent severe developmental ocular malformations. Currently, mutations in known genes explain less than 40% of A/M cases. We performed whole-genome copy number variation analysis in 60 patients affected with isolated or syndromic A/M. Pathogenic deletions of 3q26 (SOX2) were identified in four independent patients with syndromic microphthalmia. Other variants of interest included regions with a known role in human disease (likely pathogenic) as well as novel rearrangements (uncertain significance). A 2.2-Mb duplication of 3q29 in a patient with non-syndromic anophthalmia and an 877-kb duplication of 11p13 (PAX6) and a 1.4-Mb deletion of 17q11.2 (NF1) in two independent probands with syndromic microphthalmia and other ocular defects were identified; while ocular anomalies have been previously associated with 3q29 duplications, PAX6 duplications, and NF1 mutations in some cases, the ocular phenotypes observed here are more severe than previously reported. Three novel regions of possible interest included a 2q14.2 duplication which cosegregated with microphthalmia/microcornea and congenital cataracts in one family, and 2q21 and 15q26 duplications in two additional cases; each of these regions contains genes that are active during vertebrate ocular development. Overall, this study identified causative copy number mutations and regions with a possible role in ocular disease in 17% of A/M cases.

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