Age-related macular degeneration—clinical review and genetics update


  • The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Corresponding author: Emily Y. Chew, MD, Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, CRC Room 3-2531, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1204, Bethesda, MD 20892-1204, USA.

Tel.: +1 301 496 6583;

fax: +1 301 496 7295;



Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision impairment in persons over the age of 50 years in developed countries. Both genetic and non-genetic (environmental) factors play major roles in AMD etiology, and multiple gene variants and lifestyle factors such as smoking have been associated with the disease. While dissecting the basic etiology of the disease remains a major challenge, current genetic knowledge has provided opportunities for improved risk assessment, molecular diagnosis and clinical testing of genetic variants in AMD treatment and management. This review addresses the potential of translating the wealth of genetic findings for improved risk prediction and therapeutic intervention in AMD patients. Finally, we discuss the recent advancement in genetics and genomics and the future prospective of personalized medicine in AMD patients.