The emerging era of pharmacogenomics: current successes, future potential, and challenges

Authors

  • J.W. Lee,

    1. Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Medical Genetics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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    • These authors contributed equally to this review.
  • F. Aminkeng,

    1. Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Medical Genetics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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    • These authors contributed equally to this review.
  • A.P. Bhavsar,

    1. Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Medical Genetics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • K. Shaw,

    1. Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Pharmaceutical Outcomes Programme, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • B.C. Carleton,

    1. Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Pharmaceutical Outcomes Programme, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    3. Division of Translational Therapeutics, Department of Pediatrics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • M.R. Hayden,

    1. Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Medical Genetics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • C.J.D. Ross

    Corresponding author
    1. Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Medical Genetics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    2. Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    3. Pharmaceutical Outcomes Programme, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    4. Division of Translational Therapeutics, Department of Pediatrics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    • Corresponding author: Colin J.D. Ross, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Translational Therapeutics, The University of British Columbia, Rm A3-216, 950 West 28th Ave., Vancouver, BC V5Z-4H4, Canada.

      Tel.: +1 604 875 2 000x5238;

      fax: +1 604 875 2494;

      e-mail: CJROSS@cmmt.ubc.ca

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  • The authors have applied for patents based upon some of the work related to predictive markers of ADRs to cisplatin and anthracyclines described in this review. The funding agencies had no role in study design; collection, analysis and interpretation of data; writing of the report; or the decision to submit the report for publication.

Abstract

The vast range of genetic diversity contributes to a wonderful array of human traits and characteristics. Unfortunately, a consequence of this genetic diversity is large variability in drug response between people, meaning that no single medication is safe and effective in everyone. The debilitating and sometimes deadly consequences of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major and unmet problem of modern medicine. Pharmacogenomics can uncover associations between genetic variation and drug safety and has the potential to predict ADRs in individual patients. Here we review pharmacogenomic successes leading to changes in clinical practice, as well as clinical areas probably to be impacted by pharmacogenomics in the near future. We also discuss some of the challenges, and potential solutions, that remain for the implementation of pharmacogenomic testing into clinical practice for the significant improvement of drug safety.

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