We propose a novel approach to simulate the illumination of augmented outdoor scene based on a legacy photograph. Unlike previous works which only take surface radiosity or lighting related prior information as the basis of illumination estimation, our method integrates both of these two items. By adopting spherical harmonics, we deduce a linear model with only six illumination parameters. The illumination of an outdoor scene is finally calculated by solving a linear least square problem with the color constraint of the sunlight and the skylight. A high quality environment map is then set up, leading to realistic rendering results. We also explore the problem of shadow casting between real and virtual objects without knowing the geometry of objects which cast shadows. An efficient method is proposed to project complex shadows (such as tree's shadows) on the ground of the real scene to the surface of the virtual object with texture mapping. Finally, we present an unified scheme for image composition of a real outdoor scene with virtual objects ensuring their illumination consistency and shadow consistency. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of our method.